Tolerance to abiotic stresses

Drought and soil salinity and acidity are among the most important threats to agricultural production, causing severe yield losses of all major food crops worldwide. In China, the north-west region is prone to drought, so water supply is a major limitation for crop production in south and central China, soil acidity is a major limiting factor reducing crop yield salinity occurs in large areas in the east coastal region. Drought resistance has been the subject of many studies in several major...

Opportunities BIOTEC

The National Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) was established under the Ministry for Science, Technology and Energy in September 1983. In 1991, Thailand established the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) and BIOTEC became one of the NSTDA centres, operating autonomously outside the normal framework of civil service and state enterprises. This enabled it to operate more effectively to support and transfer technology for the development of...

Applications of Biotechnology for Poverty Reduction and Food Security

Breakthroughs in modern science have led to rapid progress in understanding the genetic basis of living organisms and the ability to use that understanding to develop new products and processes useful in human and animal health, food and agriculture and the environment. The adoption of modern biotechnology is most advanced in human health, where many new drugs, diagnostics and vaccines are based on the use of new biotechnology. The applications developed from the new methods in biotechnology...

Opportunities and Constraints

As highlighted in the on-line Nature supplement Science in Latin America 8A001A0.frameset context search), the region enjoys a unique opportunity to win a more prominent place in the world of science. In Brazil, many lines of research and development are already benefiting from the application of biotechnology tools such as marker-assisted plant and animal breeding, genomic mapping of several species, embryo transfer applied to different animal species, genetic resources characterization and...

Ana Sittenfeld Ana Mercedes Espinoza Miguel Munoz and Alejandro Zamora

Population per km2 68 Annual population growth GDP per head (1998 est.) US 6700 Agriculture products as of total exports 70 Agricultural exports (US ) (1997) 1.7 bn Major export commodities vegetables, fruit, ornamentals, coffee, banana, sugar Major commodities coffee, banana, sugar, maize, rice, bean, potato, beef

Evolution of Agricultural Biotechnology

Biotechnology was first used in Colombia in 1973, when the National Coffee Research Centre (CENICAFE) applied tissue-culture techniques to complement its research on industrial aspects of coffee production and processing (Sasson, 1993). Flower export companies also used tissue-culture techniques to improve their competitiveness in the international market. Americaflor was the first company to do this, in 1978. Around this time, the first tissue-culture laboratories at universities were created...

Commercial Applications of Agricultural Biotechnology

The greater specificity in the handling of genes since the 1970s has meant that inventors could protect their discoveries by means of patents and other forms of intellectual property rights (IPR). This has led to an explosion of private investment in the biosciences, leading to what has been called a biotechnology revolution. Most modern biotechnology applications are in health care, where they offer new hope to patients with AIDS, genetically inherited diseases, diabetes, influenza and some...

Estate crops biotechnology

The Estate Crops Research Institute is funded partly by the government and by state-owned companies and smallholders formed into an Indonesian Association for Research and Development for Estate Crops (Asosiasi Penelitian and Pengembangan Perkebunan (AP3I)). At present there are six autonomous research centres partly funded by AP3I, although they are under AARD coffee-cocoa, sugar cane, tea, oil-palm, rubber and biotechnology (each has research stations or units). Biotechnology deals with more...

Animal production

Livestock and poultry production has steadily increased over the last 10 years but has not kept pace with demand. Animal nutrition is a key factor in increasing productivity per animal. Private companies have developed concentrate feeds for intensive production systems for poultry and pigs. Large-volume feed stocks, such as cassava chips, which could be readily produced in Indonesia, are underutilized. Demand for milk products has increased, prompting an interest in animal breeding, embryo...

Conclusion

The Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF) established a Task Force on Biotechnology in 1995, which resulted in many recommendations in various sectors, including agriculture and livestock. More recently, the Prime Minister's High Level Commission for Science and Technology, supported by the World Bank (1996 9 7), includes a standing committee on biotechnology In spite of the massive role of multinational companies in R & D of agricultural biotechnology, the national government still has major...

Intellectual Property Rights

The IPR challenge is directly linked to the application of biotechnology tools outside the corporate world, where companies can afford to acquire rights, make alliances or develop innovations on their own. Because the patent system has undergone a process of regulatory globalization and harmonization and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights TRIPs have obliged most developing countries to move to some level of recognition of IPR in agriculture, problems that were not common to...

Privatesector Activities

The private sector is a strong force on the Zimbabwe agricultural scene. This sector includes large-scale, commercial farmers and small-scale farmers. The large commercial farm group is well organized, with formalized structures for research in crop breeding and some horticulture. Some of the major commercial farmers' groups in Zimbabwe are National Association of Dairy Farmers National Farmers' Association of Zimbabwe Commercial Grain Producers' Association Zimbabwe Tobacco Association...