Spot Series of Satellite

French Government in joint programme with Sweden and Belgium undertook the development of Systeme Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) program. Conceived and designed by the French Center National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), SPOT has developed into a large-scale international programme with ground receiving stations and data distribution outlets located in more than 30 countries. It is also the first system to have pointable optics. This enables side-to-side off-nadir viewing capabilities, and it affords full scene stereoscopic imaging from two different satellite tracks permitting coverage of the same area. SPOT-1 was retired from full-time services on December 31, 1990. The SPOT-2 satellite was launched on January 21, 1990, and SPOT-3 was launched on September 25, 1993. SPOT-4 was launched on 26 March, 1998. Characteristics of SPOT Satellites are presented in Table 5.

EUROPE

MIDDLE EAST

NORTH AMERICA

ASIA

France

ESA

Israel

USA

Canada

India

Japan

10m

LANDSAT5 -85,30m

10m

ERS 1-92/00 Radar

LANDSAT6-93

SPOT3-93/96

ERS2-95 Radar

EARLYBIRD -98

IKONOS1-99, Im

6m

10m

ENVISAT-2001 Radar

LANDSAT7-99, 15m

IKONOS2 -99, Im

6m

01, Im

SPOT5-02 3m+ HRS10

1-02, Im

-02, Im

RADARSAT -03

IRS-P6-03, 6MMSS

ALOS-03, 2.5m

Distribution

SPOT IMAGING

Miscellaneous

Imagesat

SI-EOSAT, Earthwatch, Orbimage, USGS

RADARSAT

NRSA-EOSAT

JSI

Table 4. Characteristics of Landsat-1 to -7 Missions

Sensor-system

Spectral resolution (|lm)

Spatial resolution

(m)

Equator

Orbital altitude

Operation period

MSS

Band 4: 0.5 -0.6

79x79

185

18 days

23/07/1972-06/01/1978 Landsat 2

22/01/1975 -25/02/1982 Landsat 3

05/03/1978 - 30/11/1982

Band 5: 0.6 -0.7

79x79

Band 6: 0.7-0.8

79x79

Band 7: 0.8 -1.1

79x79

MSS

As Landsat 3

185

16 days

16/07/1982 - 02/1983 Landsat 5 01/03/1984 -

TM

Band 1:0.45-0.52

30x30

Band 2: 0.52-0.60

30x30

Band 3:0.63-0.69

30x30

Band 4:0.76-0.90

30x30

Band 5:1.55 -1.75

30x30

Band 6:10.40-12.50

120x120

Band 7:2.08-2.35

30x30

TM

As Landsat 4-5

30x30

185

16 days

705 km

Landsat 7 15/04/1999 -

Band 6:10.40 - 12.50

60x60

Panchromatic: 0.50 - 0.90

15x15

SPOT-4 includes the additional 20m-resolution band in the mid-infrared portion of the spectrum (between 1.58 and 1.75 pm). This band is intended to improve vegetation monitoring and mineral discriminating capabilities of the data. Furthermore, mixed 20m and 10m data sets will be co-registered on-board instead of during ground processing. This will be accomplished by replacing the panchromatic band of SPOT-1, -2 and -3 (0.49 to 0.73 pm) with red band from these systems (0.61 to 0.68 pm). This band will be used to produce both 10m black and white images and 20m multispectral data. Another change in SPOT-4 is the addition of a separate wide-field-of-view, sensor called the Vegetation Monitoring Instrument (VMI).

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