Biochemical and Microbiological Changes in Landfill

Waste decomposition in a landfill is typically an anaerobic process involving the coordinated activity of several groups of micro-organisms. Based on laboratory scale experiments, the microbiological processes that occur in a landfill have been delineated into four phases viz. (1) aerobic phase during which both oxygen and nitrates are consumed using sugars and organics. (2) anaerobic acid phase (3) accelerated methanogenic phase and (4) decelerated methanogenic phase. In the anaerobic acid...

Info

A live animal mass nd no data E1 estrone E2 17 -estradiol E3 Estriol. a live animal mass nd no data E1 estrone E2 17 -estradiol E3 Estriol. Table 3. Examples of levels of steroid hormones ( g kg) reported in dairy wastes Table 3. Examples of levels of steroid hormones ( g kg) reported in dairy wastes Press-cake solids, Dry-stack (semi-solid), Dry-stack (solid), Holding ponds 139 ( 7) 603 ( 358) 289 ( 207) 370 ( 59)

Introduction Of Agricultural Waste

Agricultural waste can be defined as the residues from the growing and first processing of raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, dairy products, and crops. Although agricultural waste is a general term used to describe waste that is produced on a farm through various farming activities, these activities can include other activities such as seed E-mail sarmahA LandcareResearch.co.nz. growing, nursery plots, and even woodlands that are used as ancillary to the use...

Potential Hazards Associated with Agricultural Waste

Given the sources of agricultural wastes are diverse, agricultural solid wastes can often be potentially hazardous and detrimental to the terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems. Uncontrolled and improper handling can often lead to many situations where agricultural waste can become an environmental issue. The following sections discuss some of these issues and provide a perspective on the agricultural waste as potential hazards. Over-application of agricultural waste in the form manure to crop...

Bdl

236 ( 216) 113 ( 67) 239 ( 30) 426 ( 78) 349 ( 339) 203 ( 176) 543 ( 269) The concentration of steroid hormones in dairy waste and sludge is dependant on the level of waste effluent treatment and storage and this is reflected in the concentration ranges shown in Table 2. Furthermore, analysis of total estrogens within a pile of dairy cow manure demonstrated estrogen levels as high as 1000 g kg at the surface of the heap, but only about 3 of that within the heap (Mostl et al. 1997). The...

Landfilling

Archaeological records indicate that landfills have been around since the stone-ages (White-Hunt, 1980 1981a,b). It is unlikely though, that the stone-age communities dug pits specifically for the disposal of wastes. Such landfills may have developed because a natural pit was available, hence traditional processes of landfilling simply involved dumping of refuse. It is not known whether such landfills were used specifically for the disposal of agricultural wastes or other types of wastes....

Contents

Chapter 1 Potential Risk and Environmental Benefits of Waste Derived from Chapter 2 Animal Waste and Hazardous Substances Current Laws and Chapter 3 Reprocessing and Protein Enrichment of Agricultural Wastes by Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (TAD) 29 Chapter 4 Fly Ash Use in Agriculture A Perspective 77 Chapter 5 Pesticides Use, Impact and Regulations for Management 93 Vandita Sinha, Vartika Rai and P.K.Tandon Chapter 6 Carbonization of Rice Husk to Remove Offensive Odor from Livestock Waste...

Natural Steroid Hormones

Livsetsock wastes can be termed as natural agricultural waste and can act as potential sources of EDCs (Figure 1) to the environment. Compounds such as E2, its metabolites E1 and estriol (E3), and male androgen testosterone and its derivative androstenedione are excreted by animals of all species. These hormones are present in faeces and or urine and reach the environment through the release of animal wastes to receiving waters, animal waste application onto land, or by direct excretal input...

Agricultural Waste References

Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. 2008. Biogas energy potential in Alberta. Anderson DM, Gilbert PM, Bukholder JM (2002). Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication nutrient sources, composition, and consequences, Estuaries 25, 704-726. Baldock JA, Smernik RJ (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally altered Pinus resinosa (Red pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry 33, 1093-1109. doi 10.1016 S0146-6380(02)00062-1 Boxall ABA, Fogg LA, Blackwell P, Kay P, Pemberton EJ,...

Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion evolved as an attempt to harness the intrinsic advantages of AD on the one hand, and of bioprocessing with thermophiles on the other (Ahn and Forster 2000 Mackie and Bryant, 1995). Thermophilic anaerobic digesters are relatively new (Zinder, 1990 Rimkus et al., 1982). However, a lot of research efforts have been made to understand and optimise the processes, in studies that have employed a variety of wastes, mostly in laboratory and pilot processes...

Notice To The Reader

The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers' use of, or reliance upon, this...

Conclusion

Issues concerning the applicability of Superfund and EPCRA to animal agriculture activities have been controversial and have drawn considerable attention. Bills in the 109th Congress gained much support (when the 109th Congress adjourned in December 2006, H.R. 4341 had 191 co-sponsors, and S. 3681 had 35 co-sponsors), but were not enacted. They also drew opposition from environmental advocacy groups and state and local governments. The Bush Administration did not present an official position on...

Enforcement against AFOs

EPA has enforced the Superfund and EPCRA reporting requirements against AFO release of hazardous pollutants in two separate cases. The first involved the nation's second largest pork producer, Premium Standard Farms (PSF) and Continental Grain Company. In November 2001, EPA and the Department of Justice announced an agreement resolving numerous claims against PSF concerning principally the Clean Water Act, but also the Clean Air Act, Superfund, and EPCRA. More recently, in September 2006, the...

Reuse Of Agricultural Waste Tntroduction

Waste treatment by microbiological methods is probably as old as the generation of waste itself. In spite of this, scientific knowledge of the processes involved in biological waste treatment is relatively recent. Traditionally, wastes have been treated to remove them from areas in which they are not wanted (Bewely et al., 1991). Hence, early methods of waste treatment were essentially waste relocation or disposal processes, inspired by man's desire to protect his immediate environment. The...

Physiological Features of Thermophiles Important in TAD

Within each microbial group, thermophiles that have a wide growth temperature range are known as eurythermal, while those with more restricted range are stenothermal. Generally, thermophiles have been considered as those organisms able to grow in the temperature range of 55 C and above. This range is selected for ecological reasons. For instance, while temperatures below 50 C are common on earth surfaces, associated with sun heated habitats, temperatures above 55 C are rare as biological...

Production of Biochar

The term 'Biochar', or more appropriately 'biocarbon', refers to all products made from the process of pyrolysis that decomposes organic materials at temperatures generally between 350 and 500 C in the absence of oxygen or with limited oxygen. During pyrolysis, an average of 50 of feedstock carbon content is converted to char however, this percentage varies by feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Due to the environmental and agronomic values of biochar, production of biochar from agricultural...

Definition of Agricultural Waste

A general definition of 'agricultural waste' is not available in the literature. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), agricultural waste is the byproducts generated by the rearing of animals and the production and harvest of crops or trees. Animal waste, a large component of agricultural waste, includes waste (e.g., feed waste, bedding and litter, and feedlot and paddock runoff) from livestock, dairy, and other animal-related agricultural and farming...

Environmental Requirements for Composting

The rate of composting is believed to depend on a number of rate limiting steps, which include production and release of hydrolytic enzymes needed for the breakdown of substrates diffusion of solubilized substrate molecules, and oxygen transport and availability within the composting mass (Huang, 1980). Optimisation of the composting process depends on the management of a number of variables such as (a) nutrient balance an important component of which is the carbon nitrogen balance. A ratio of...

Energy Production from Agricultural Waste

Poletory Diagram Schedule

Although it is clear from above discussion that ethanol production through fermentative methods from crops and other renewable biomass sources has received much attention recently, crop-based feed-stocks are subject to seasonal fluctuations in supply, ultimately limiting ethanol generation (Kasper et al. 2001). The energy cost in harvesting these feedstocks (e.g., corn stubble) as well as their lost value as soil amendments can make ethanol production costly for farmers (Pimental, 1992). Animal...

Thermophilic aerobic Digestion

TAD is a process in which the metabolic heat of aerobically growing microbial cells is conserved in an insulated system, leading to the elevation of the temperature of the digesting mass to thermophilic range (Gomez et al., 2007 Coulthard et al., 1981 Surucu et al., 1975, 1976 ). It arose as a modification of the conventional activated sludge process (Adav et al., 2008). Given efficient aeration, microbial metabolism leads to production of sufficient heat to cause a rise to, and maintenance of...

Fundamentals of Anaerobic Digestion

The operation of AD requires the co-operation of fermentative bacteria, hydrogen producing acetogenic bacteria, hydrogen consuming acetogenic bacteria carbon-dioxide reducing methanogens and aceticlastic methanogens Appels et al., 2008 Lee et al., 2008 Montero et al., 2008 Zinder, 1986 Archer and Kirsop, 1990 . Organic polymers are first hydrolysed to simple soluble substrates which are then fermented to yield various organic acids including acetate, formate and reduced organics such as...

Development of Compost

The development of compost has been delineated into four stages viz. a Latent b Growth c Thermophilic and d Maturation phases Saludes et al., 2008 Abouelwafa et al., 2008 Sanchez-Arias et al., 2008 Raut et al., 2008 Yu et al., 2008 Cayuela et al., 2008 Alfano et al., 2008 . The latent phase is associated with the acclimatisation of the microorganisms in the waste. During the growth phase, microbial population and the temperature of the digesting mass rise rapidly. This stage is mostly...

Overview of Silage Making Ensiling

Although ensiling is not a conventional process for the management of waste, it has found significant application in the reprocessing treatment and preservation of a variety of agricultural residues for use in animal feeding. Silage making is the lactic fermentation storage of forage for use in animal ruminant feeding. Ensiling is a multistage process which ultimately results in low pH lt 4.0 products that have extended resistance to spoilage and often having appealing flavour to ruminants ....

Turnover of Macromolecules in Thermophiles

Early theories of thermophily suggested that high temperatures led to a rapid turnover of macromolecules, particularly proteins. This, however, has not been demonstrated in B. stearothermophilus nondiastaticus, which does not turn over its proteins and RNA other than mRNA faster than do mesophiles Sundaram, 1986 . Low protein turnover has also been reported in T. aquaticus Kenkel and Trela, 1979 . It has been reported that thermophile proteins are more stable than their mesophile counterparts,...