Conclusion On Mushroom Cultivation

Mushroom cultivation is perhaps the most important microbial technology, after the yeast fermentation, in the economic terms. It promises to supply food with good quality protein produced from worthless lignocellulosic wastes of varied origins. In future, newer mushrooms are likely to be added to diversify the portfolio of the cultivated mushrooms and the production of the presently consumed mushrooms will increase with the genetic improvement of the strains and the advancements in the...

Mechanisms of Plant Growth Promotion by PGPF

Several hypotheses have been put forward for the mechanisms of plant growth promotion by PGPF, including (a) hormone production, (b) substrate degradation (mineralization), and (c) suppression of deleterious microorganisms. Culture filtrates of certain fungal species promote plant growth, due to the production of plant growth hormones by these fungi (Ram 1959). Growth promotion has been seen in some plants after treatment with mycelial exudates from PGPF strains of Trichoderma and SRF, and a...

What Is A Nematophagous Fungus

Nematodes constitute a food source for the nematophagous (nematode-destroying) fungi. Living stages of nematodes (eggs, juveniles, vermiform adults, and feeding sedentary females) can be attacked, penetrated, and digested by several types of nematophagous fungi (Jansson and Lopez-Llorca 2001). Dead nematodes (juveniles, vermiform adults, cysts, and root-knot nematode mature females) may also be invaded by nematophagous as well as other (saprotrophic) fungi, but the latter may not be regarded as...

References

Alexander NJ, Hohn TM, and McCormick SP (1999). TRI12, a trichothecene efflux pump from Fusarium sporotrichioides gene isolation and expression in yeast. Mol Gen Genet 261 977-984. Appel RD, Palagi PM, Walther D, Vargas JD, Sanchez JC, Ravier F, Pasquali C, and Hochstrasser DF (1997). Melanie II A third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images I. Features and user interface. Electrophoresis 18 2724-2734. Bai GH, Plattner R, Desjardins A, and Kolb F...

Plant Breeding Strategies for Enhancing Host Resistance to Mycotoxigenic Fungi

Several resistant inbreds among the 31 tested in Illinois field trials (Campbell and White 1995) and highlighted through the KSA (Brown et al. 1995), have been incorporated into an aflatoxin-resistance breeding program whose major objective is to improve elite Midwestern corn lines such as B73 and Mo17. In this program, the inheritance of resistance of inbreds in crosses with B73 and or Mo17 was determined (Hamblin and White 2000 Walker and White 2001 White et al. 1995b 1998), and in the case...

Mushroom Flavors

Sugihara and Humfeld (1954) who found that mushroom flavor could be produced by Lepiota rhacodes when grown under submerged conditions. Gilbert (1960) Litchfield et al. (1963) and Le Duy et al. (1974) studied the production of mushroom flavor by Morchella crassipes. Lentinus edodes produced 1-octen-3-ol, 5'-amp, an intense mushroom flavor when the medium was supplemented with ethanol (Sugimori et al. 1971). Hamid et al. (1972) investigated the production of mushroom flavor from Trichoderma...

Status Of Bioherbicides

Several recent reviews have provided an overview on various bioherbicide projects being conducted around the globe (Boyetchko 1999 Boyetchko et al. 2002 Charudattan 2001 Rosskopf et al. 1999). Eight bioherbicides have been registered in various countries over the last two decades with several other microbial candidates in various stages of evaluation and development (Table 1). Devine and Collego , the first mycoherbicides registered in the United States are currently marketed by Encore...

Mycoprotein as Food

The microbial food product of the early 21st century does not base its market success solely on account of its protein content, as vegetable proteins sources are abundant in the market at competitive prices. The resemblance in texture to that of currently appreciated foods, and a bland taste and light color, which renders it susceptible to the addition of flavoring and coloring agents, are also a prerequisite. The filamentous nature of the organism, a feature, which was considered as a...

Cellulose Degradation

In a simplistic summary, there are four major steps in generating bioethanol and other biomass-derived products (a) generate biomass through photosynthesis, (b) process raw biomass to a form suitable for microbial fermentation, (c) ferment biomass into ethanol (or other products), and (d) recover product and recycle unfermented residual biomass. We will not dwell here on the first step that takes place in nature. We present the remaining steps to place in proper perspective fungi based...

Fungi RootNematode Interactions

Nematophagous fungi can infect, kill, and digest living nematodes. Most of these fungi can also live saprophytically and some even have mycoparasitic abilities. Since most plant-parasitic nematodes attack plant roots, the rhizosphere biology of nematophagous fungi is important from a biological control point of view. We previously described that nematophagous fungi were more abundant in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil (Persmark and Jansson 1997). In recent investigations we studied the...

Brown Rot And Soft Rot Fungi

Only a few organisms are capable of degrading the aromatic polymer lignin, the most efficient of which are fungi. Three groups of fungi are capable of lignin degradation (Eriksson et al. 1990) White rot, brown rot, and soft rot fungi (Table 1). Brown rot fungi belonging to the basidiomycetes extensively degrade cell wall carbohydrates and only modify the lignin (Eriksson et al. 1990). Demethylation is the most obvious consequence of attack on lignin by these fungi. The brown rot fungi grows...

Endophytes

Endophytes are defined as organisms that grow within a living host plant but not strictly within living cells, thereby deriving nutrition without detrimental symptoms for the host. It is believed that the living stems, twigs, and leaves of most woody plants contain symptomless endophytes, but because of their clandestine nature their prevalence is ambiguous, and identification of their presence relies on arduous techniques such as careful isolation from surface sterilized tissues and...

Am Biofertilizers Have An Edge Over Other Biofertilizers

This group of biofertilizers is the only among others having fungal system involved. Other biofertilizers exploit bacteria most commonly. Also this offers wide applicability with a wide range of plants having little selectivity, which is commonly reported in other biofertilizers. Though some exceptions exist with certain nonmycorrhizal families like chenopodiaceae, brassicaceae, and few nonhost plants of nyctaginaceae etc. The storage conditions also are very simple with no extra...

Mixed Cultures

Some research was done on the use of mixed cultures of different microorganisms to improve the utilization of nutrients in stillage and to obtain better yields of biomass. Combinations of different yeasts, yeasts and bacteria, yeasts and molds or different molds were studied. Biomass yield of the mixed cultures can be substantially higher than that of pure cultures. A two-step fermentation proved to be very effective. Yeast was used in the first step to produce large amounts of biomass, and a...

Biopesticide Potential Of Entomopathogenic Fungi

There are a number of methods for using entomopathogenic fungi against insect pests. Eilenberg et al. (2001) recognized four main strategies (a) classical biological control, the intentional introduction of an exotic strain for long term, unmanaged control, (b) inoculative biocontrol, the intentional release of endemic strains for long-term unmanaged biocontrol of endemic pests, (c) inundative biological control, Table 1 Biopesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi (Milner 2GGG Reddy et al....

Biocontrol of Gray Mold

Botrytis cinerea Pers Fr. is an important pathogen on many vegetable crops grown under greenhouse conditions as well as under field conditions. Under high humidity conditions or when free moisture is present on the plant surface, the pathogen infects fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems causing tissue decay. This is followed by prolific sporulation of the pathogen, producing a gray mold appearance. Wounded tissues are especially susceptible to this pathogen. Much of the research activity to...

Fermentation Technology and Downstream Processing

Yeasts and filamentous fungi were traditionally employed in the production of alcoholic beverages and fermented foods over centuries (Hui and Khachatourians 1995 Rajak 2000). Yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces) have been used worldwide for brewing and baking for thousands of years. Likewise, filamentous fungi have been traditionally used for preparing mold-ripened cheeses (mainly Penicillium spp.) in Europe and soybean-based fermented foods (mainly Aspergillus spp.) in the Orient. On the other hand,...

Respiration And Dry Matter Losses

Harvested grain carries a wide range of bacterial and fungal contaminants. Depending on effectiveness of storage conditions, and the climatic region of the world the level and type of contamination will vary. Grain itself and the microbial contaminants respire slowly when stored dry. However, if the water availability is increased to 15-19 moisture content ( 0.75-0.85 aw) predominantly spoilage fungi, particularly Eurotium spp., Aspergillus, and Penicillium species grow resulting in a...

The Clustering of Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes

Significant progress has been made in the last decade in deciphering aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway (Bennett 1981 1987 1986 1994 Bhatnagar et al. 1988 1991 1992 1993 1998 Bhatnagar and Cleveland 1990 Cary et al. 2000a,b Chang et al. 1992 1993 1995a,b 2000b Cleveland and Bhatnagar 1992 2002 Dutton 1988 Minto and Townsend 1997 Papa 1982 1984 Payne 1998 Payne and Brown 1998 Silva and Townsend 1996 Silva et al. 1996 Townsend 1997 Trail et al. 1995a 1995b Yu et al. 1993 1995a 1997 1998 2000a,b). As...

Legumebased Fermented Foods

Legumes are used for food production mainly in Asia. Fermentation improves digestibility of legumes by hydro-lyzing proteins, and breaking down antinutritional molecules like trypsin inhibitors. (a) Tempe (Tempeh) Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained,...

Host Invasion

It has been proposed that penetration of the host mycelium takes place by partial degradation of its cell wall (Elad et al. 1983b,c). Interaction sites have been stained by fluores-ceinisothiocyanate-conjugated lectins or calcofluor. The appearance of fluorescence indicated the presence of localized cell wall lysis at points of interaction between the antagonist and its host (Elad et al. 1983c). Furthermore, Figure 1 Transmission electron micrographs of Trichoderma atroviride parasiting...

Formulation

It is believed that many of the environmental challenges, particularly long dew period or leaf wetness requirements, can be tackled to a large extent with formulation technologies (Boyetchko et al. 1999 Greaves et al. 2000 Green et al. 1998). Formulation is essentially the blending of microbial propagules with a range of carriers or adjuvants to produce a form that can be effectively delivered to target weeds. For microbial agents, formulation may enhance pathogen survival and infection as well...

Production Formulation and Application

Production of entomopathogenic fungi has not advanced greatly beyond the use of simple grains as substrates for the Deuteromycete fungi, such as Metarhizium and Beauveria. For many other entomopathogenic fungi, especially among the Entomophthorales, growth in culture is difficult or has yet to be achieved. Both liquid and solid substrates have been substantially investigated (Burgess 1998). Two-stage systems, where both liquid and solid substrates are used, have occasionally proved successful....

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients...

Herbicide Synergy

As stand-alone products, mycoherbicides have achieved limited success in the marketplace. Technologies such as formulation and application methods can improve the performance of biocontrol agents, but more noticeable enhancements in weed control have been observed with the combined application of mycoherbicide agents and synergis-tic herbicides (Peng et al. 2000 Sharon et al. 1992 Wymore et al. 1987). Limited information seems to suggest that synergistic interactions are herbicide and pathogen...

Spawn Production

The term spawn is used for vegetative growth of mushroom mycelium on a suitable medium, to be used as inoculum or seed for the substrate in mushroom cultivation. Right kind and quality of spawn is very important in the cultivation of edible fungi. The technique of spawn preparation witnessed many developments before Sinden developed the currently used grain spawn on hard winter rye grain after addition of calcium salts and patented the process in 1932 and 1937. However, wheat grain is now most...

Major Constraints And Solutions In Commercialization Of Am Biofertilizer

Perhaps the most important deterrent to the commercial use of mycorrhizal fungi globally is the lack of large-scale multi-location field trials in a variety of agricultural soils and an absence of general lack of awareness among the users. Without such an activity it will be difficult to establish a market for mycorrhizal inoculum. Without a market there is little incentive for a commercial setup to initiate the production of inoculum on a commercial scale, and only large-scale production will...

World Production Of Mushrooms

The rapid rate of development of mushroom production technology from a primitive cave culture in France to a hightech industry during the last three centuries is a success story which has kept pace with the ever-increasing demand for this commodity and there is every reason to be optimistic about its further growth in the years to come (Rai and Verma 1997). From a meager 2 million tonnes in 1986, the world mushroom production has registered a 3-fold increase in a decade and was about six...

Factors Affecting AflatoxinST Biosynthesis

Since the aflatoxin and ST biosynthetic pathway genes are found to be clustered on a single chromosome in both A. parasiticus and A. flavus and in A. nidulans, respectively, (Brown et al. 1996b Woloshuk and Prieto 1998 Yu et al. 1995a), these genes are presumably expressed concurrently in the genome. In both the aflatoxin and ST gene clusters, there is a positive regulatory gene, aflR, for activating pathway gene transcription located in the middle of the gene clusters. The aflR gene, coding...

Historical Background

Although mycotoxicoses have been known for a long time, identification of a specific mycotoxin as a causative agent for these illnesses was unknown in most of the incidences reviewed in Bhatnagar et al. (2002) . For example, at least one of the 10 plagues in ancient Egypt recorded in Exodus (and as early as 430 B.C.) could have been associated with mycotoxin-contamination of food. Since the ninth century, ergot-infected rye has (ergotism) afflicted large-populations in Europe, when ergotism was...

Novel Strategies for Biopesticide

In some cases, preexisting application technology may not be well suited to the requirements of a biological agent. One approach that takes advantage of the biological nature of entomopathogenic fungi is the lure and infect approach, best demonstrated by research on Z. radicans for control of diamondback moth. Furlong et al. (1995) have shown that using pheromone lures to attract moths to traps containing sporulating Z. radicans can result in contamination and spread of the fungus through the...

Filamentous Fungi

Compared to yeasts, filamentous fungi have been used less frequently for bioconversion of distillery wastes. The reasons might be that they are slower growing and more susceptible to infection. However, filamentous fungi have some advantages as they produce a series of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and are therefore able to exploit complex carbohydrates without prior hydrolysis this property enables them to grow in starch and cellulose substrates. The second advantage is in their filamentous...

Future Trends In Biofungicide Research

During the last two decades, there were numerous efforts focusing on the isolation and identification of a wide range of biologically active natural products. As a result, hundreds of thousands to millions of compounds became available for the evaluation of their value as potential lead compounds. The concept of a HTS was developed to screen a large number of chemical libraries, which overcome the limitation of conventional in vitro and in vivo assay. The HTS is made possible by the advance in...

Development of Aflatoxin Resistance Screening Tools

Several screening tools have been developed and used to facilitate corn breeding for developing germplasm resistant to fungal growth and or aflatoxin contamination (King and Scott 1982). Inoculation methods employed with corn include the pinbar inoculation technique (for inoculating kernels through husks with A. flavus conidia), the silk inoculation technique, and infesting corn ears with insect larvae infected with A. flavus conidia. (King and Scott 1982 Tucker et al. 1986). Two resistant...

Benefits Of Mycorrhizal Inoculation

The practical application of mycorrhiza in agriculture is relatively new, though its importance has been evident for some 400 million years. The unique advantage of mycorrhizal organisms is that they not only survive in the most stressful environments but also make the plant to do so. The role of mycorrhiza in land reclamation is most recognized these days. Application of mycorrhizal biofertilizer provides a most desirable solution to many such environmental problems. These...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore...

Biopesticides Based on Fungi

Application of fungi in mass inoculations against insect pests began with Krassilstchik in 1888. Indeed, such was the optimism at that time Krassilstchik confidently predicted the idea of controlling insects by means of artificially induced epidemics, an idea expressed some 20 years ago by scholars, has become a practically feasible one, which in the future will be perfected and broadly utilized (Krassilstchik 1888). Unfortunately, progress has been much slower than what was predicted. While...

Nonpathogenic Fungi As Biocontrol Agents of Seedling Root Crown and Vascular Wilt Diseases

Nonpathogenic and hypovirulent strains of fungi that are closely related taxonomically to plant pathogenic species have been reported to provide biological control of a number of pathogens, including species of Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, and Pythium. Competition by nonpathogenic strains for host plant nutrients, colonization of roots and infection sites to preclude the pathogen, parasitism of pathogen hyphae, and induction of host plant resistance are mechanisms through which these nonpathogenic...

Aflatoxins

Aflatoxins (AF), a group of polyketide-derived bisfurans containing dihydrofuranofuran and tetrahydrofinan (rings) Figure 1 Chemical structure of aflatoxins. (A) The B-type aflatoxins are characterized by a cyclopentane E-ring. These compounds have a blue fluorescence under long-wavelength ultraviolet light. (B) The G-type aflatoxins, with a green fluorescence, have a xanthone ring in place of the cyclopentane. (C) Aflatoxins of the B2 and G2 type have a saturated bis-furanyl ring. Only the...

Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Genes As Targets for Detection of Fungi

Mycotoxins are a chemically diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites that are harmful to animals and humans. Several hundreds of different mycotoxins have been identified, but only about 20 of them are relevant to human health. Most of the mycotoxin-producing species are filamentous ascomycetes or deuteromycetes, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are considered as being the most important mycotoxin-producing genera. Most mycotoxins are very resistant to physical or chemical treatments....

Biodegradation Of Azo Dyes By Fungi Other Than White Rot Fungi

In recent years there have been many reports regarding biodegradation of azo dyes by white rot fungi (Bumpus 1995 Stolz 2001 Yuzhu and Viraraghavan 2001 Knapp et al. 2001 Robinson et al. 2001 McMullan et al. 2001). In contrast, there have been only a few reports focusing on biodegradation and or decolorization of azo dyes by fungi that are not white rot fungi. Some of these fungi are listed in Table 2. Table 2 Manuscripts describing adsorption of or biodegradation of azo dyes by fungi other...

Challenges For Food Security In This Century And Beyond

Today we face many critical issues in agriculture (a) an exponentially growing human population (b) recurrent famine (c) the destruction of natural landscapes such as tropical rain forests to extend agriculture to previously unused lands (d) the exodus of human civilization from rural communities to cities (e) the destruction of environmental quality resulting from exposure to agrochemicals, erosion of soils and salinization of soils as well as exhaustion and contamination of fresh water...

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

The AMF interact with functionally diverse bacteria such as diazotrophs, biological control agents, and other common rhizosphere inhabitants (Nemec 1994) that often result in significant alterations to plant growth, yield, and nutrition. Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria may have detrimental (Filion et al. 1999 Shalaby and Hanna 1998 2001) or beneficial effects (Edwards et al. 1998 Gryndler and Hrselova 1998 Li et al. 1997 Ravnskov and Jakobsen 1999), or have no effect at all...

Fungal Diversity Environmental Change And Conservation

Biodiversity is generally considered to be fundamental to ecosystem functioning and stability. Thus, if this tenet is extrapolated to fungi in forest ecosystems, fungal biodiversity is critical to global geochemical cycles. A well-cited global estimate for fungal biodiversity is in the range of 1.5-M species (Hawksworth 1991 2001). However, at a local level, appropriate monitoring of fungal diversity can identify ecological and climatic trends, provide a database for spatio-temporally...

Use Of Mycorrhizal Inoculum 81 When is it Appropriate

Over the past three decades, there has been increasing interest in using mycorrhizal inoculation in large-scale plant production situations, including manipulating and managing the effectiveness of plant-fungus relationships (Miller et al. 1994). Before the selection and culture of fungi begins, it should be determined that inoculation is more appropriate as a management option than manipulation of the native mycorrhizal population. Identifying whether a disturbed site would respond favorably...

Saprophytic Cultivation of Claviceps 521 History

The first saprophytic cultivation of Claviceps on artificial nutritional media dates back to 1922 (Bonns 1922). The first attempt for the industrial production of ergot alkaloids was isolation of clavine alkaloids from submerged cultures of different Claviceps spp. (Abe and Yamatodani 1954 1955 Abe et al. 1952 1956). Later, conditions for saprophytic production of simple derivatives of lysergic acid were developed using different strains of C. paspali (Arcamone et al. 1960 1961). It took only 5...

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

3.2.1 Streptomyces, the Largest Reservoir of Diverse Chemical Structures Actinomycetes have been a major supplier of natural products (Huck et al. 1991 Lee and Hwang 2003). In particular, Streptomyces is a prolific producer of versatile structures of antibiotics. Most of antibiotics developed for agricultural uses including pesticides were isolated from Streptomyces strains (Tanaka and Omura 1993). Among antifungal antibiotics recently discovered from Streptomyces spp., polyketide-spiroketal...

Isolating and Culturing Fungi

Despite the benefits of mycorrhizal associations, application has not been widely used on a commercial scale. For commercial development, large quantities of inoculum must be produced. Since AM are obligate biotrophs, they must be grown and maintained on living plant roots. This is often problematic because of the high risk of introducing plant pathogens and other contaminants into the culture system (Jarstfer and Sylvia 1997). In contrast, EM fungi may grow on agar media in the absence of a...

Induced Resistance

Induced resistance is a plant response to challenge by microorganisms or abiotic agents such that following the inducing challenge de novo resistance to pathogens is shown in normally susceptible plants (de Wit 1985) Induced resistance can be localized, when it is detected only in the area immediately adjacent to the inducing factor or systemic, where resistance occurs subsequently at sites throughout the plant. Both localized and systemically induced resistances are nonspecific. Recently, the...

Factors Affecting Mycotoxin Production

Genetics and environmental and nutritional factors greatly affect the formation of mycotoxins. Depending on the susceptibility of the crop, geographic and seasonal factors, as well as cultivation, harvesting, storage, and transportation practices, mycotoxins are found worldwide (D'Mello and MacDonald 1997). In the field, weather conditions, plant stress, invertebrate vectors, species and spore load of infective fungi, variations within plant and fungal species, and microbial competition all...

Seedling Root Crown and Vascular Diseases

3.1.1 Trichoderma Species Identification The genus Trichoderma contains species that occur in soils throughout the world. Most species are fast-growing saprophytes with the ability to survive under a range of environmental conditions by utilizing different substrates for growth (Hjeljord and Tronsmo 1998 Samuels 1996). The most common biological control agents in the genus Trichoderma have been reported to be strains of Trichoderma virens, T. harzianum, and T. viride (Hermosa et al. 2000)....

Mycorrhizal Associations

Mycorrhizal associations include many taxas of fungi belonging to members of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and Deutromycetes. A characteristic feature of these fungi is that they are generally widespread in soils, exhibit a strong biotrophic dependence on their host plants, and are rarely free living saprophytes. Different types of mycorrhiza are classified into seven different categories on the basis of the extent of root penetration. Among them arbuscular mycorrhizas are the...

Aeroponic Culture Techniques

It is a soil-less plant culture system in which nutrient solutions are intermittently or continuously misted onto plant roots. This system allows efficient production of AM fungi, free of a physical substrate. The colonized root material can be sheared, resulting in inocula with very high propagule densities. Furthermore, large quantities of spores can be obtained from the culture system. Aeroponic culture has worked well for several species of Glomus. It typically takes 12-15 weeks to obtain...

Lipid Degradation

Starchy grains contain about 2.5 lipids while oil rich seeds contain much more (Aspinall and Greenwood 1965). Lipids can be degraded endogenously and via fungal invasion, both by oxidation and by hydrolysis, with lipoxygenases and lipases, respectively (Zeleny and Coleman 1938). Usually an increase in free fatty acids in the seeds is indicative of utilization by spoilage fungi. Indeed Magan et al. (1993) demonstrated that free fatty acid values for different spoilage fungi varied considerably...

Safety And Quality Control Of Microbial Protein Products

The safety and acceptance of microbial protein products has to be strictly controlled, as in the case of all foods. The concepts underlying the acceptance and safety of novel protein sources including mycoprotein products were developed between 1970 and 1974 by the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations (PAG), initially based on established toxicological experience. During the 70s the experience was accumulating with the incorporation of an increasing number of preparations of microbial...

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Mushrooms are highly perishable and have short shelf life ranging from few hours to days depending upon the species and the storage environment. Weight loss, blackening, veil-opening, and microbial spoilage are the common undesirable postharvest changes besides many physiological and biochemical changes (Bano et al. 1997 Rai and Saxena 1989a Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms require utmost postharvest care like proper handling, packaging, precooling, cool-chain transport, and storage till...

Methods for Yeast Identification

The specificity of nucleic acid sequences has prompted the development of several methods for rapid species identification. The comparison of RNA (rRNA) and its template ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has been used extensively in recent years to assess both close and distant relationships among many kinds of organisms as a result of the existence of conserved sequences within this region, and the concerted evolution among units (Kurtzman and Robnett 1998). Using the information from this region,...

Intraspecific Variabilities

The use of active dry yeasts is of particular interest to the wine industry, since the sensory properties of the final product vary considerably from one year to another depending of the microbial flora present on the grapes (Querol et al. 1990). It is generally assumed that indigenous yeasts are suppressed by the starter however, different studies show that indigenous yeasts can still participate in the fermentation (Schiitz and Gafner 1993 Querol et al. 1992a), although an implantation of...

Yeast Biodiversity In Wineries 21 Yeast Species Diversity During Vinification

All the investigations carried out on grape surfaces by direct isolation (without enrichment) have constantly shown that Hanseniaspora uvarum (anamorph Kloeckera apiculata) is always the predominant inhabitant of the grape surface (75 of the cells) this numerical supremacy may explain its initial domination in natural fermentations. Metschnikowia pulcherrima is often present, followed by a group of film-forming yeasts (Pichia anomala) or pigmented species (Rhodotorula sp.). In a general study...

Acidfermented Leavened Bread And Pancakes

The acid fermentation makes the food resistant to spoilage and development of food toxins and less likely to transfer pathogens. (a) Indian Idli Idli is the Indian equivalent of the Western sourdough bread. It differs from sourdough bread as first leavening is achieved by bacterial instead of yeast activity and secondly wheat or rye is not used as source of protein to retain carbon dioxide during leavening. Idli is prepared by bacterial fermentation of batters...

Fermentation Mass Production

There are potentially three fermentation systems that may be used for mass production of mycoherbicide agents submerged liquid culture, solid substrate fermentation, and two-phase system (Auld 1993a). At the industrial level, liquid fermentation is the most common method for economical production of microbial inoculum. Two commercial myco-herbicides, Collego and Devine , are manufactured this way in the United States (Churchill 1982 Stowell 1991). By understanding the importance of nutritional...

Mode Of Action Of Nematophagous Fungi

The rhizosphere is a habitat with high microbial activity due to release of nutrients from root exudates and decaying cells. Like other micro-organisms, nematophagous fungi are more frequent in the root zone, with up to 19 times more propagules than in the surrounding nonrhizosphere soil (Persmark and Jansson 1997). Numbers of nematodes are also higher in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. Since plant-parasitic nematodes attack their plant hosts in the root, understanding of the rhizosphere...

Woodland Ecosystems As A Global Resource

Woodland ecosystems are a major planetary resource, involving about a third of the land surface. Forests and woodlands provide a habitat for biological diversity. They contribute substantially to the global carbon cycle and are the natural venue for many derived pharmaceutical, practical, and edible products. Woodlands are also an environment for indigenous peoples, and provide much aesthetic and amenity value. Alarmingly, our forests are being lost at a rate of around 14.6 X106 ha yr due to...

Other Selected Mycotoxins

In addition to the mycotoxins discussed above, a number of other mycotoxins occur naturally. The impacts of some of these mycotoxins on human and animal health are discussed in the following sections. 3.5.1 Other Mycotoxins Produced by Aspergillus Sterigmatocystin (ST) is a naturally occurring hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by fungi in the genera Aspergillus, Bipolaris, and Chaetomium as well as P. luteum see Bhatnagar et al. (2002) . Structurally related to AFB1 (Figure 5), ST...

Musilek Semerdzieva

Ammermann E, Lorenz G, Schelberger K, Wenderoth B, Sauter H, and Rentzea C (1992). BAS 490F-a broad-spectrum fungicide with a new mode of action. Brighton Crop Prot Conf Pests Dis 1 403 -410. Anke T, Oberwinkler F, Steglich W, and Schramm G (1977). The strobilurins-new antifungal antibiotics from the Basidiomycete Strobilurus tenacellus. J Antibiot 30 806-810. Aoki Y, Yoshihara F, Kondoh M, Nakamura Y, Nakayama N, and Arisawa M (1993). Ro 09-1470 is a selective inhibitor of P-450 lanosterol...

Combined Approach The Agar PlugTLC Method

The agar plug method was first introduced as a taxonomic tool for Penicillium in 1983 (Frisvad and Filtenborg 1983). Figure 11 ESI+ mass spectra from injection of crude extracts of three Penicillium isolates. Figure 11 ESI+ mass spectra from injection of crude extracts of three Penicillium isolates. Figure 12 Cluster analysis of 45 mass spectra from direct infusion ESI + MS of crude culture extracts of P nicillium species. Calculated using correlation coefficient and UPGMA linkage. Figure 12...

Biodegradation Of Azo Dyes By White Rot Fungi

The remarkable biodegradative abilities of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Bumpus et al. 1985) led Cripps et al. (1990) to study the ability of this fungus to degrade azo dyes. It was shown that Orange II, Tropaeolin O, and Congo Red were all extensively decolorized in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures of this fungus. Nutrient nitrogen limited conditions were selected because, in this fungus, such conditions promote expression of the lignin degrading system and it is this...

Saprotrophs of Attached and Fallen Wood and Litter

Saprotrophic fungi are the principle decomposers of nonliving plant and animal detritus in the natural environment, thus recycling chemical elements back to the environment in a form other organisms may utilize. Filamentous fungi usually dominate wood and litter decomposing communities, but under particular ecological circumstances, for e.g., for wood in tropical ecosystems termites may predominate, and under waterlogged conditions bacteria may prevail (Rayner and Boddy 1988). Other wood and...

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized...

Specialty Mushrooms

Specialty mushrooms is a term given to a group of cultivated mushrooms which are less common in a particular area or country, but the term has been used to practically encompass all mushrooms other than the common button mushroom (A. bisporus). In the United States, the term specialty mushrooms is used to cover all mushrooms other than the button mushroom, which accounted for 90 of total production of 346188 MT there in 1993-1994 (Sharma 1997). In Japan, however, the situation is reverse to...

Heavy Metal Biosorption

Fungi and yeasts (Puranik et al. 1995 Sag and Kutsal 1996 Volesky and May-Phillips 1995 Zhao and Duncan 1998) have in the past received the most attention in connection with metal biosorption systems, particularly because plentiful amounts of fungal biomass are generated as by-products of several types of industrial alcohol and antibiotic fermentations (Omar et al. 1996 Sag et al. 2000 Volesky and Holan 1995). One such system consisting of Aspergillus niger waste from citric acid production was...

Reference On Fermented Foods Joshi And Pandey In 1999

Fermentation studies on maize during the preparation of a traditional African starch-cake food. J Sci Food Agric 21 619-625. Ali MZ and Dirar HA (1984). A microbiological study of Sudanese date wines. J Food Sci 49 459-460. Aniya Y, Ohtani II, Higa T, Miyagi C, Shimabuhuro M, Nahanishi H, and Taira J (2000). Dimerumic acid as an antioxidant of the mold, Monascus anka. Free Radic Biol Med 28 999-1004. Atputharajah JDS, Widanapathivana S, and Samarajeewa U (1986). Microbiology...

Fungi As Plant Growth Promoter 21 Pgpf

Many fungi isolated from soil can inhibit plant growth. Generally, the inhibition of plant growth is mostly caused by plant-pathogenic fungi, however, some fungi that are not normally considered as pathogens can also inhibit plant growth. These fungi have been termed indefinite pathogenic fungi, and in one study, isolates of Eupenicillium javanicum, Penicillium janthinellim, P. citreonigrum, and P. citrinum obtained from roots of zinnia plant caused a 23-57 inhibition of the growth of the same...

Adaptive Evolution of Wine Yeast Strains

Although the origin of S. cerevisiae is a matter of controversy, its original genome has been subjected to strong selective pressures since its first unconscious use in controlled fermentation processes. Useful phenotypic traits, such as fast growth in sugar-rich media, high alcohol production and tolerance, and good flavor production, which have been selected over billions of generations, have had strong influences on the S. cerevisiae genome (Perez-Ortin et al. 2002). We now will analyze some...

Mycotoxins Mycotoxicosis and Mycotoxicology

Mycotoxin is a convenient generic term describing the toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. Myco means fungal (mold) and toxin represents poison. They encompass a considerable variety of low molecular weight compounds with diverse chemical structures and biological activities. Some mycotoxins could also be toxic to plants or other microorganisms but these compounds are not classified as antibiotics of fungal origin. Like most microbial secondary metabolites, the benefit of mycotoxins...

Interpretation of Isozyme Banding Patterns in Diploids Dikaryons and Polyploids

Interpretation of isozyme banding patterns in diploids and dikaryons is much more complicated, and is aided by knowing whether a particular enzyme is mono- or multimeric. For monomeric enzymes, homozygous diploid individuals should produce a single band on a gel as described for haploids. Diploid individuals that are heterozygous at a locus for a monomeric enzyme will give two bands in a properly stained isozyme gel following electrophoresis. Each band can be interpreted easily as a different...

Fungus Nematode Interactions

Arthrobotrys oligospora forms so-called adhesive network traps on which vermiform nematodes are captured. The formation of traps in this fungus is induced chemically by Figure 3 Top figures show infection of nematode egg by the egg parasite Pochonia sp. Germling of the fungus forms an appressorium after contact with the egg surface (left). An adhesive is formed and the fungus penetrates the egg shell, grows inside the egg, and digests its contents. Bottom figures illustrates capture and...

The Biosynthetic Pathways of Aflatoxins and Sterigmatocystin

2.3.1 Acetate to Norsolorinic Acid (NOR) Trail et al. Molecular evidence supports the plausible hypothesis that two fatty acid synthases (FAS) and a polyketide synthase (PKS) are involved in the synthesis of polyketide from acetate (Bhatnagar et al. 1992 Brown et al. 1996a Townsend et al. 1984 Trail et al. 1995a). Complementation of an aflatoxin blocked UV mutant, UVM8, Mahanti et al. (1996) identified a gene named uvm8, which is required for NOR biosynthesis and aflatoxin production in A....

Cis and Trans Acting Genetic Factors Relevant to the Expression of Biocontrol Genes

Lorito et al. (1996a) first used an in vitro approach to detect cis-acting motifs on the ch42 promoter being involved in mycoparasitism. They confronted Botrytis cinerea on agar plates with T. atroviride P1, prepared crude protein extracts from mycelia harvested at different phases during myco-parasitism, and used them in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Competition experiments, using oligonucleotides containing functional and nonfunctional consensus sites for binding of the carbon...

Root Organ Culture Technique

The ROC system is the most attractive cultivation methodology for research it uses root-inducing transfer-DNA-transformed roots of a host plant to develop the symbiosis on a specific medium in vitro (Becard and Fortin 1988). The pathogenic condition known as hairy root occurs due to the transfer of root inducing Ri-plasmid from the bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Schenck 1992). These techniques, though challenging have proved useful additions to our knowledge for various aspects of the AM...

Regulation of Trichothecene Biosynthesis

The TRI6 gene is located in the middle of the trichothecene gene cluster in both F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum (Proctor et al. 1995b). The TRI6 gene encodes a pathway- specific regulatory protein required for the expression of trichothecene biosynthetic pathway genes (Desjardins et al. 1993 Hohn et al. 1999 Keller and Hohn 1997 Matsumoto et al. 1999 Proctor et al. 1995b 2000 Trapp et al. 1998). The predicted polypeptides encoded by TRI6 in both F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum...

Volvariella spp Paddy Straw Mushroom

Volvariella is a mushroom of the tropics and subtropics it grows at a relatively high temperature of around 35 C. This is a very fast growing mushroom, it takes about 10 days from spawning to first harvesting, is easiest to cultivate with a cropping cycle of 3 weeks but does not give good economic yields and its shelf-life is poorest of all mushrooms. Understandably, its production in 1997 was only 0.18 million tonnes and it contributed only 3 to the world mushroom production while its share...

Gas Chromatography and GCMS

Gas chromatography (GC) can be used to analyze volatiles directly and numerous semivolatile components after derivatization, e.g., trichothecenes, amino acids, sugars, Figure 6 Extract from an Aspergillus niger isolate analysed by HPLC-DAD-FLD. Ochratoxin A, B, a, and b, are easily seen in the lower fluorescence trace (ex. 230 nm, em. 450 nm) with the fluorescence spectra of ochratoxin A and a inserted. In the upper UV trace (210 nm), several tetracyclic compounds (UV spectra inserted) obscure...

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jack. ex.Fr.) Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide...

Methods for Yeast Characterization

Methods by which strains of the same species can be differentiated have been shown to be very important for yeast strain characterization. In winemaking, several studies have analyzed the diverse microflora of grapes and musts and several interesting methods have been developed (Figure 2). PCR amplification using intron splicing site (consensus sequences that flank introns) displays polymorphism mainly at the within-species level (de Barros Lopes de et al. 1996) PCR amplification of delta...

Enzyme Activities of Non Saccharomyces Wine Yeasts

With respect to the role played by these non-Saccharomyces species in wine quality, they are known to have the capability to improve the wine aroma (Charoenchai et al. 1997 Esteve-Zarzoso et al. 1998). The available aromas in the grape impart and define the characteristics and the final quality of wine. Terpenic compounds account for most of these aromas. Grape processing liberates small quantities of aromatic terpenols however, odorless precursors in the grape present a large, untapped reserve...

List of Producers and Formulators of Commercial AM Inoculum

These bio-inoculants are now formulated in different formulations. These are designed on the basis of their application to different crops and locations. They are available in the form of powders, tablets pellets, gel beads, and balls. Intraradical forms of Glomus sp. (vesicles and mycelium fragments) were entrapped in alginate and used as inocula. Isolated intraradical material was found to regenerate in alginate beads and the regenerated mycelium infected roots under controlled conditions...

Recent Success in Fungicide Development from Antifungal Leads

Since strobilurin A and oudemansin A were found to be fungicidal metabolites in Basidiomycete fungi Strobilurus tenacellus (Anke et al. 1977) and Oudemansiella mucida (Musilek et al. 1969), respectively, a number of structurally related compounds were reported to have fungicidal activity. Each member of this family incorporates a methyl b-methoxyacrylate group linked at its a-position to a phenylpentadienyl unit, and all the compounds except strobilurin A carry either one or two additional...

Substrate Compost Preparation

Substrate preparation technique for the button mushroom has witnessed evolutionary changes over the years, from the long-method of composting to the current environment-friendly indoor composting. However, the intermediate short-method of composting, is still the most popular method all over the world. Long method of composting is the oldest method and now exists only in few pockets of the world mainly because of poor productivity, proneness to attack by the competitors, and also due to more...

Alkanes And Alkenes

Many soil fungi, such as Aspergillus terreus, Pseudal-lescheria boydii, and the yeast Candida tropicalis, degrade the mixtures of n-alkanes found in crude oil April et al. 1998 2000 Colombo et al. 1996 Nwachukwu 2000 , often with the help of biosurfactants Lindley 1992 . Candida utilis has also been used for the bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic ecosystems Nwachukwu 2000 . Methane, the major component of natural gas, is produced by a variety of methanogenic Archaea. It is utilized for...

Water Availability The Concept

The extent to which seeds and grain are susceptible to spoilage fungi depends, above all, on the presence of water in the system. In fact, many authors have written about the fundamental requirement for water in microbial growth Cooke and Whipps 1993 Griffin 1981 Scott 1957 . Most stored products such as seeds and grain are hygroscopic in nature, i.e., they will either take up or release moisture until they reach a dynamic equilibrium with the surrounding environment. It is straightforward to...

Enzyme Activity Staining

Once the proteins have been separated on a gel, a set of staining protocols must be followed to reveal the isozymes. Specific enzyme activity staining is what makes isozyme analysis possible. Recipes and techniques for staining hundreds of enzyme activities are provided in numerous compilations Micales et al. 1986 Selander et al. 1971 Shaw and Prasad 1970 Soltis et al. 1983 and are beyond the purview of this chapter. However, a brief description of the major types of staining systems is...

Managing Plants to Enhance Recovery

The establishment of mycorrhizal associations depends largely on two facets the characteristics of the host plant and the spatial pattern of planting. Plants exhibit different degrees of mycotrophy, primarily based on their capacity for nutrient uptake and their growth response to fungal colonization. In early work by Stahl 1900 , plants were divided into nonmycotrophic, facultatively mycotrophic, and obligately mycotrophic categories, forming a continuum from the least to most responsive...

Sources of Antagonists to Nematodes

Just as the biodiversity of the planet is becoming more and more reduced, scientists and the general public are becoming more aware of its importance in practical terms. Microbial biodiversity is little known but even the most humble soil may contain strains of microorganisms with interesting antagonistic properties. In the past, the use of antagonists for biocontrol purposes was restricted to the culturability of the putative organisms detected. Nowadays, in the post-genomic era, our...

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Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information, neither the author s nor the publisher, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage, or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. The material contained herein is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any specific situation. Trademark notice Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks and...

Preface

The study of fungal biotechnology is proceeding at an unprecedented rate with an array of new tools to generate a wealth of disciplines and subdisciplines. By means of modern biotechnology, fungi have justified their practical application to varied domains of human enterprise, and thus promise considerable potential in the agricultural, food, and environmental spheres. The successful application of fungal biotechnological processes in these areas requires the integration of a number of...

Mycorrhizae And Bioremediation

In the mining process, not only plants are removed, but also upon soil replacement changes in texture and deposits of salts and heavy metals often result Allen 1989 . The toxicity of metals not only depends on their concentration in the soil, but also their availability and transfer to plants. By providing a direct link between soil and plants, mycorrhizal function could be of great importance in heavy metal polluted soils Leyval et al. 1997 . As such, there is increasing interest in the...