History of the milpa system

Historic questions were asked to gather some background on the importance of the milpa system for each household. The questions were used to try to ask the households directly what the principal threats to the milpa system are. While most of the households in the survey sample planted milpa in the survey year (221 of 281, or 79 ) many households had left the activity recently. The first question on the survey was whether the household had planted the milpa. Those households who reported not...

Introduction

Plant collection and display, particularly in the form of botanical gardens, have a long history, dating back several hundred years. Without having the explicit objective of conserving plant species, botanical gardens became the first conservation sites for plants, and are still an important conservation institution. Since then, the range of conservation instruments for genetic resources has expanded. There is, however, a fundamental divergence of views on what objectives should be the focus of...

Linkages Between Agricultural Biodiversity And Biotechnology Overview

Between 1961 and 1999, global per capita cereal production increased by 22 while total acreage devoted to cereals increased by only 4.9 .4 This increase in productivity is partially attributable to an increase in fertilizer, pesticide, and water use. However, in a recent study, Evenson and Gollin (2003) show that the development and adoption of improved genetic materials were a significant and large part of the increase in agricultural productivity over this period. They estimate that between...

Differences In Gmv Use And Impacts Between Developed And Developing Nations

The results from our conceptual model enable us to analyze patterns of pesticide use across locations. We can distinguish between countries according to several factors including their level of pest infestation and their pricing of pesticides and pest-control technologies. The levels of pest infestation vary across locations. More humid regions are subject to higher levels of infestation than regions with dry climate. Thus, they have higher potential for yield loses. The humid, more pest-prone...

References

G., and Smith, V. H., 1998, Financing agricultural R& D in rich countries, Aust. J. Agr. Resource Econ. 42 (l) 51-82. Antle, J. M., 1999, The new economics of agriculture, Presidential Address prepared for the Annual Meetings of the American Agricultural Economics Association, Nashville (August, 1999). Bellon, M. R., 1996, The dynamics of crop infraspecific diversity A conceptual framework at the farmer level, Econ. Bot. 50 26-39. Bellon, M. R., 2000, Demand and...

Assumptions about the GM technology and seed industry structure

Before analyzing several outcomes from GMVs, let us specify assumptions about their benefits and cost structure. We assume that each traditional variety can be modified, but it may also be replaced by a generic GMV. The exact outcome depends on costs, constraints, and decision making about seed supply. For simplicity, we assume that GMVs improve seed productivity. This corresponds to yield-increasing GMVs (e.g., Bt cotton in India or South Africa see Qaim and Zilberman, 2003).4 Let Mp' A)...

Adoption patterns

Both theoretical and empirical research studies have shown that farmer heterogeneity leads to differences in expected incomes and, therefore, to differences in the associated pattern of farmer acceptance and adoption. Certain distribution patterns may occur because a new technology benefits large farms that can adjust to new practices more easily than smaller farms. In addition, owners of low-quality, marginal land may benefit more from land quality-augmenting technology than owners of...

National expenditures for PGRFA conservation

National expenditures on PGRFA conservation are difficult to assess, largely because of uncertainties in defining the scope of PGRFA programs. It seems that most countries' national efforts to conserve PGRFA are in the hands of different departments in different ministries. In addition to the complex administrational structure, other parastatal and nongovernmental organizations are involved in the conservation activities as well. Only in some countries are all efforts coordinated by an overall...

Numerical Illustration

The numerical illustration makes use of data from Chapter 10 (Table 103, second column for the region allocation, while country level data are taken from the fourth column in Table 11-1 below. For the sub-region level allocation, we chose the example of Southeast Asia. Tables 11-2 and 11-3 present the final allocations in the presence of bargaining power and coalition building. In other words, these represent the payoff function (IFj, 2, and 3), or power indices, results using the values in the...

Objectives And Contributions

The emergence of biotechnology has expanded the human capacity to take advantage of genetic resources and manipulate biological material to obtain food, medicine, and other valuable substances. Biotechnology products generally contain a large intellectual component requiring significant up-front investment, and they have a highly valuable commercial potential, which has created an impetus for the privatization of the knowledge input to their production. The establishment of intellectual...

Overall conclusion the role of institutional innovations

Agricultural biotechnology has great promise for poverty reduction, both through direct and indirect effects, with considerable flexibility in striking differential balances between these two sets of effects to reduce aggregate poverty according to regional and agroecological contexts. Failing to capture this potential would be both a serious missed opportunity in the struggle against poverty and a risk that the competitiveness of smallholders in developing countries be further weakened...

Overview Of This Book

This section provides a summary of the contents of the rest of the chapters in this book. Chapter 2 is an overview of the processes of globalization (particularly trade liberalization), environmentalism, consumerism, and the rise of the information economy, all of which are key factors that shape the evolution of agriculture, biotechnology, and biodiversity. 5 PGRFAs consist of the diversity of genetic materials contained in all domestic cultivars as well as wild plant relatives and other wild...

P

Private production of a new idea under legally enforceable IPRs Figure 15-3. Private production of a new idea under legally enforceable IPRs Because the legally enforceable IPRs endow a firm with monopoly rights over the new idea produced, the monopolist will price off of the MR curve with the result that, when it optimizes profits where MR MC, q* will be produced and sold at Pm. Since area OPmaq* is greater than area Obcl, the firm can earn a return on the initial sunk cost...

Part V

Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and Development Policy Implications TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE AND POVERTY REDUCTION THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Alain de Janvry,1 Gregory Graff,2 Elisabeth Sadoulet,1 and David Zilberman1 'Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 2 Visiting Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California,...

Pitfalls in managing conservation funds

Wu, Zilberman, and Babcock (2001) argue that in some cases conservation funds may affect the prices of food and other commodities sufficiently so that resources previously not used for production will start being utilized or leakage occurs. Thus, we may have a paradoxical situation where farmers are paid to reduce utilization or intensity of use on certain lands, creating pressures to bring other lands into intensive production. Under this type of scenario, increased levels of agricultural...

Policies To Promote The Conservation And Sustainable Use Of Agricultural Biodiversity

'Economist, Agricultural and Development Economic Analysis Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N., Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 0010,0 Rome, Italy 2Professor, Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The paper finds that agricultural biodiversity conservation generates several types of benefits, which are realized by different groups in society and over time. The nature and distribution of benefits is an...

Policy Mechanisms To Support Farmer Management Of Crop Biodiversity

Policy mechanisms to support farmer management of crop biodiversity in locations that are promising candidates may be classified as either related to (1) the demand for or (2) the supply of genetically diverse or distinct crop varieties (Bellon, 2000 Jarvis et al., 2000). Some illustrative examples are provided below, though many of these initiatives are new and their efficiency in meeting conservation goals given the level of investment required has not yet been assessed using cost-benefit...

Prerequisites For An Efficient Pgrfa Conservation Approach

All of the mentioned actors involved in the conservation of PGRFA will have a role to play in the conservation of plant genetic resources in the future. It will be essential for the future success of increased utilization of improved varieties that the relations between these actors will be productive and some increase in the efficiency of their efforts attained. The main task for the public sector is to set priorities according to the national capacity. Furthermore, it will improve the...

Preserving the existence value of biodiversity

Programs with this objective are more common for wild biodiversity rather than agricultural biodiversity conservation, due to higher ratio of existence to use values with the former as compared with the latter. However, it is likely to be important in agricultural biodiversity conservation as well, particularly in the preservation of unknown species that have the potential to be useful in future applications. Programs, which involve the conservation of ecosystems and evolutionary processes,...

Principles Of Valuation Of The Conservation Investment

A reduction in biodiversity matters for two reasons (Chapter 5) (1) the vulnerability of a crop and its current productivity and (2), the potential for farmers to cease cultivating a variety with untapped, potential use value. Any variety, whether bred with conventional methods or with techniques of genetic transformation, will be widely grown by farmers if they view it as superior to those they currently cultivate. With respect to the first concern, if that variety, or a set of varieties, is...

Privatization And Devolution

Many of the powers that governments wielded in the past have been transferred to the private sector or local governments in recent years. These processes of privatization and devolution are occurring parallel to the process of globalization thus, we see a shift of power from national governments towards bigger international organizations as well as smaller, local governments and private firms. The logic of this devolution is an assignment of responsibilities that are scale appropriate and...

Privatization of natural resource property rights and expansion of trading schemes

Land reform and the decollectivization of commonly held properties have been major trends in transition economies and developing countries in recent years. Lands that previously belonged to the state or other forms of communal ownership have been allocated to individual owners who obtain property rights for utilization of the land and its resources. These measures are intended to eliminate inefficiencies that existed under centrally planned economies and inequities in distribution in others. At...

Proliferation of environmental groups in civil society

Public support for the environmental movement has been manifested by the establishment of nongovernmental organizations that emphasize various aspects of environmentalism. Some, like the Nature Conservancy, are engaged in the purchase of valuable environmental resources (mostly land and water), and others (e.g., Greenpeace) are engaged in political activism. Other key players include the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the World Resources Institute (WRI), which play a role of information...

Proxy Indicators Of The Value Of Diversity

This section describes a proxy indicator for the importance of a region as a primary center of diversity. With the exception of a perhaps a case study or two, figures on crop production by variety are unavailable. The probability of variety loss is unknown, as is the marginal economic value of adding (subtracting) an additional variety (to) the set of varieties that make up a species. In practice, the best one can do is to estimate a third-best proxy for the optimal allocation of the...

Reduced environmental pollution and improved forest plantations productivity

In forestry, researchers at Michigan Tech University made a breakthrough in tree engineering with potentials for reductions in energy, costs, and environmental pollution from pulp mills. Using antisense technology to suppress an enzyme Pt4CLl encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the lignin biosynthetic pathway, these workers have produced GM aspen with a 45 reduction of lignin and a 15 increase in cellulose (Hu et al., 1999). Recently, the same researcher (now at North Carolina State...

Reduction in size and increased specialization of central governments

The reduction in the responsibilities of state governments is also associated with a reduction in taxation to support state governments (or at least a reduction in the rate of growth of taxation). Moreover, a larger share of the tax revenues of the central governments is returned to local governments that actually provide services. There are several 5 See Wolf (1998) for evidence for England, Australia, and New Zealand. Some countries in Latin American, notably Nicaragua, are going through...

Restored environmental degraded soils

Biotechnology applications will have positive impacts on environments degraded through conventional practices, e.g., restoration of degraded soil using phytoremediation with engineered crops and or microorganisms. In fact, French et al. (2001) and Hannink et al. (2001) demonstrated detoxification of explosives by transgenic plants expressing a bacterial nitroredu-ctase. Recently, transgenic cottonwood with mercuric ion reductase gene has been field tested for remediation of soil contaminated...

Risk Considerations

For simplicity, we will assume that the GMV eliminates pest pressure altogether, so with these technologies, ym ym g- yf The damage is assumed to be a random variable D aNh(x0)where aN is a random variable with mean xN and variance aN2 multiplied by the damage reduction as a function of pesticide use presented by h(x0). The farmer determines the pesticide use before the true state of nature is revealed. We also assume that the farmer is risk averse, and his decisions are approximated well by...

S4945a43a43 2005

2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now know or...

Scenario one

The case of perfectly competitive private production of a new idea in the absence of legally enforceable IPRs is illustrated in Fig. 15-2 below. Figure 15-2. Failure of private production of a new idea under perfect competition and no legally enforceable IPRs Figure 15-2. Failure of private production of a new idea under perfect competition and no legally enforceable IPRs In Fig. 15-2, area Obcl represents the sunk cost that is necessary to incur in order for the potential new idea to be...

Socioeconomic factors influencing variety selection

At present, the primary means by which the in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity resources is achieved is through de facto conservation achieved through farmers' choice of CGR. In order to understand the current status of agricultural biodiversity as well as where interventions will be necessary, it is important to document the socioeconomic characteristics of the farm households involved in growing specific crops. A primary goal of such an effort will be to identify the possible...

Species and varieties

Species (including crop varieties, animal breeds) provide both use and nonuse biodiversity values (Randall, 2001). Species can be grouped into those that are known and utilized, those that are known but not utilized, and those that are unknown. By definition, these have a use value, although frequently this value is nonmonetary. This category includes species of plants and animals that are utilized in the production of food, fiber, oils, etc. It includes non-harvested species essential for...

Springer

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Agricultural biodiversity and biotechnology in economic development edited by Joseph Cooper, Leslie Marie Lipper, David Zilberman. p. cm. - (Natural resource management and policy 27) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-10 0-387-25407-2 (alk. paper) ISBN 13 978-0387-25407-4 (HC) ISBN-10 0-387-25408-0 (SC) ISBN-13 978-0387-25408-0 (SC), E-ISBN-10 0-387-25409-9 E-ISBN-13 978-0387-25409-8 1. Agrobiodiversity. 2. Agricultural...

Strategies For Conserving Agricultural Biodiversity

Agricultural biodiversity is a major and valuable form of natural and human capital, comprised of several components, including plant genetic diversity, which has been the focus in this book. The gains from the conservation and enhancement of agricultural biodiversity spread far beyond the location such activities take place. Agricultural biodiversity has strong public good properties, but its benefits are uncertain and vary across locations and over time. Thus, market forces by themselves will...

Summary Of Model And Major Findings

The legal framework in the United States, Europe, and other developed countries has gradually evolved so that those who decipher genetic structures, discover the functions of genes, or identify mechanisms to alter genes can register patents and own the IPRs for the utilization of these discoveries. Private parties have an incentive to conduct research leading to new discoveries because they expect to gain financially from selling the rights to utilize the IPRs, or to utilize them directly in...

Targetingbased quantitative analysis

A primary challenge of conservation funding is how to target purchases to maximize the impact of a given budget. Some of the principles for analysis and data collection required to answer this question have been addressed in the emerging economic literature on the management of bioresource purchasing funds (Wu, Zilberman, Babcock, 2001), which has been used to analyze the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and water quality programs in the United States (Ise and Sunding, 1998). The basic...

The Adoption Decision And Its Implication

The determination of the optimal pesticides for each variety provides the base for the variety choice. Let the gain from adoption of the local GMV be w(xa -xm) (80-8m)Fp - F and the gain from adopting the generic variety be Let i* be the indicator of the optimal variety, z* m if An > 0 and Aw > An ',i* g if An > 0 and An > An ', and * o otherwise. The farmer will adopt the local modified variety if it is more profitable then the other two (if An > 0 and An > Anf> '). The...

The Challenge For Agricultural Technology

The challenge for developing country agriculture in the next 25 years is enormous, particularly if it is not only to satisfy the growing effective demand for food, but also to help reduce poverty and malnutrition in an environmentally sustainable fashion. Due to population growth and rising incomes, demand in the developing countries is predicted to increase by 59 for cereals, 60 for roots and tubers, and 120 for meat over this period (Pinstrup-Andersen, Pandya-Lorch, and Rosengrant, 1999)....

The choice of GMVj or a generic GMV

Thus far, we have analyzed the area to be planted with GMVs in the four scenarios considered. However, a more fundamental question is whether to introduce a generic GMV at a given location or to modify the local varieties. The decision rule for a monopolist is different from that of a public sector entity, which introduces seeds to be distributed by competitive seed companies. We will solve the public sector case first and then consider the monopolist problem. PM1 (A'f j - MI (A'gj is greater...

The Economic Value Of Genetic Diversity For Crop Improvement Theory And Applica Tion

Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 Abstract It is often argued that maintaining genetic diversity is a valuable insurance policy against crop failure. In this paper the economic value of diversity is related to the scarcity of genetic resources. Different modes of analysis are proposed for qualitative and quantitative genetic attributes, although both approaches can be related to the theory of order statistics. Economic value is value on the margin. While the total...

The Economic Value Of Genetic Improvements

Let us define an expected welfare function W(N), i. e., the welfare, IV, expected to be derived from conducting genetic improvements starting from a gene pool of N potential parent organisms. I will suppose that the welfare realized by consumers can be measured by the surplus they realize from the consumption of the commercial product, which is the area under the demand curve between zero and the quantity of actual consumption.2 Let inverse demand be p q) where q is quantity consumed, and...

The Emergence Of Information And Knowledge Economics

Arguably, the dominant form of technological change in the last 25 years has been in the area of information, communications, and data processing. Over the last 25 years, we have witnessed drastic reductions in the cost of data processing and the proliferation of computer use among families and small firms, emergence of global communications networks that enable instantaneous financial transactions and fast, massive transfer of data across locations, and establishment of a network of satellites...

The evolution of plant improvement 221 Domestication of wild species

Humans have manipulated the genetic makeup of plants since agriculture began more than 10,000 years ago (Table 3-1). Primitive societies of hunters and gatherers recognized wild species of cereals and harvested them for food. Societies of shifting cultivators gradually domesticated these wild species, creating the basis for sedentary or permanent agricultural systems. These early farmers unconsciously managed the process of domestication over several millennia, selecting and planting the best...

The Freedom Tooperate Problem

As noted in the introduction, biotechnology applications have been used for centuries. The term biotechnology was first used to describe traditional activities that involved various techniques for using living things to make products or provide services (Grace, 1997). These activities had agricultural, medical, environmental, and other applications. It is, therefore, an umbrella term that includes aspects of engineering, basic sciences, humanities, commerce, and other disciplines. Agricultural...

The International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer11

This Code of Conduct aims to promote the rational collection and sustainable use of genetic resources, to prevent genetic erosion, and to protect the interests of both donors and collectors of germplasm. The Code, a voluntary one, has been developed by FAO and negotiated by its Member Nations through the FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.12 The Code proposes procedures to request and to issue licenses for collecting missions, provides guidelines for collectors...

The Model

Table 10-3 in Chapter 10 provides the indicator (OECD Value of Agricultural Production ascribed to Primary Centers of Diversity) that could be used to distribute PGRFA conservation funds between regions. However, this indicator, or any other, can only be a rough guide. For example, players may attempt to utilize bargaining power and form blocks in order to receive a larger allocation than suggested by this indicator. We present an analytical framework for modeling this process. To determine the...

The Objectives Of Conservation And Sustainableuse Activities

Programs to promote the conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity may be intended to meet one or more environmental or social objectives, focused on preserving one or more of its associated values and components. The objective of conservation programs determines both the design of the activities and in the establishment of mechanisms for the financing of such efforts. We summarize some of the main types of program foci below. 3.1 The promotion of sustainable production...

The Objectives Of Pgrfa Conservation

Three fundamental objectives for the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) can be identified in the ongoing discussion (Virchow, 1999 FAO, 1998) Ensure future utilization through long-term ex situ conservation, which conserves PGRFA in their present constellation for future generations to come. Support adaptation of PGRFA to changing environmental conditions through long-term in situ conservation, which exposes genetic resources to ecological pressure...

The Operation Of Conservation Funds

As the analysis in the previous section indicates, conservation funds are likely to be an important source of finance, particularly where option and existence values of conservation are the key objective. Even where royalties or access fees are assessed, they may be placed into some type of conservation fund, as is the case with royalties from commercialized products under the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources. Such funds may be managed by countries, private businesses, nonprofit...

The potential for holdups in Canadian agricultural biotechnology research

There is no convincing evidence that research activities have been seriously held up in Canada as a result of IPRs. Public research organizations exist and are active in plant breeding through both conventional and nonconventional techniques. Even if private agents cannot get a license to use key biotechnologies, those who desire to engage in nonconventional plant breeding research can do so by partnering with one of many public organizations and, particularly, by supporting graduate student...

The Transformation Of Agriculture And The Evolution Of Plant Improvement Research

Modern cereal cultivars have developed through four main phases of selection (i) subconscious selection by earlier food growers in the process of harvesting and planting, (ii) deliberate selection among variable materials by farmers living in settlements and communities, (iii) purposeful selection by professional breeders using scientific principles of inheritance and observable physical traits, and (iv) selection based on genomic characteristics and the application of molecular markers and...

The Value Of Biodiversity Conservation And Priorities For Conservation

The 1994 Convention on Biological Diversity states that biological diversity means variability among living organisms and includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. In this chapter we are especially interested in agricultural biodiversity, a vital subgroup of general biodiversity. Agricultural biodiversity encompasses the variety and variability of animals, plants, and micro-organisms on earth that are important to food and agriculture which result from the...

Theoretical Framework

A disembodied (nonrival) item is often difficult to exclude because, once the initial cost that produced the item is borne, it can often be transferred between individuals at virtually no cost.1 In the case of a new idea, it is not produced until it is communicated for verification, the very act of which ensures nonexcludability. The marginal cost of producing more than one unit of a particular new idea is approximately zero (the cost of communication). The theoretical framework is divided into...

Towards An Intellectual Property Clearinghouse For Agricultural Biotechnology

1 Visiting Postdoctoral Researcher, Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 2Professor, Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 Abstract Much of the critique of patent systems for hindering research has focused on the scope or definition of what is patentable. We suggest, rather, that by focusing on the exchange of existing patent rights, significant improvements in...

Traditional varieties

Optimum level of PGRFA maintenance at the farm level Note MC marginal costs MB marginal benefit. MCrrF MBrrF marginal costs marginal benefit for resource-rich farmers. MCrpF MBrpF marginal costs marginal benefit for resource-poor farmers. Source Virchow (1999). Farmers will go on maintaining their production systems, and consequently, a specific level of PGRFA diversity, as long as their private marginal benefit is higher than the private marginal costs they incur from the loss of...

Traits Potentials and risks

The advent of applications of biotechnology to agriculture offers the possibility of amplifying the achievements of traditional breeding that sustained the GR (Chapter 12). We summarize the reasoning behind this possibility into three categories (1) It broadens the spectrum of potential new products and traits through genetic engineering (recombinant DNA techniques, insertion of genetic materials) of plants and animals, including both wide crossings (gene transfers within species from wild...

Transfer of technologies and the delivery of products

Institutions to link the results of research to the delivery of products adoptable by developing country farmers and particularly smallholders include the following i) Public and nonprofit sector roles in (1) the insertion of new traits in poor farmer crops and varieties with insufficient current market size to provide private sector incentives, (2) the assembly of idiosyncratic technological packages for smallholder farming that combines traits controlled by gene insertion with functions...

Unilateral Responses To The Intellectual Anticommons

On its own, a company has limited options to pursue its own freedom to operate within a congested intellectual property (IP) landscape. As well, universities and public sector research institutions are finding it necessary to devise IP strategies to cope with a shifting interface between public interests and private economic forces (Byerlee and Fischer, 2001 Kryder, Kowalski, and Krattiger, 2000 Press and Washburn, 2000). Overall, the following IP management tactics constitute the potential...

Use Of Patents By Government

Government may apply to use patented invention 19. (1) Subject to section 19.1, the Commissioner may, on application by the Government of Canada or the government of a province, authorize the use of a patented invention by that 19.1 (1) The Commissioner may not authorize the use of a patented invention under section 19 unless the applicant establishes that (a) it has made efforts to obtain from the patentee on reasonable commercial terms and conditions the authority to use the patented...

USv RjUs

Where m denotes the number of world regions s , k, and g are the number of players in every coalition of world regions S , every coalition of countries K, every coalition of firms G , respectively r. represents the number of countries in the world region R and ch is the number of firms Consider the example of the five world regions using the population criterion. If we take into account the fact that players a and b act together, the payoff vector using the allocation rule VF will be , , , , B...

V

Where M Rj K represents the set of players when world region Rj is replaced by K. Given this function, a reasonable expectation for K is the Shapley value (p M Rj K j of player K in this restricted game. This amount also represents the relative payoff, in game (N, U), of K if it would replace the world region Rj and bargain with the m-1 other world regions. Using the measure of the relative payoff of each country of the world region Rj, we can define the sub-game nr.,Wr of world region Rj by...

Welfare Implications Of Choosing A Legally Enforceable Intellectual Property Rights Regime

The new idea can be produced through one of two methods2 (1) fully publicly funded research and no IPRs or (2) privately funded research and strong IPRs. Because no IPRs are attached to the new idea in method (1), assume extra units are available at the MC of production (price equal to Pc, which is nearly zero). The social welfare derived from production of the new idea is, then, equal to the consumer surplus generated (area of triangle fePc) minus the cost of the...

[k

Where Wj is the value of the agricultural sector in the PGRFA-utilizing countries. This value can be defined as consumer plus producer surplus at the retail level, and Wj I (i.e., Wj without I) is the value of the agricultural sector assuming that it could not obtain PGRFA set I. If suppliers of I had some form of market power of the supply of set in period j, then they would capture a portion of Vj(i) .5 For an illustration of how V I) can be formally represented, take the seed industry as an...

Globalization Of Trade And Capital Markets

Over the last 20 years, the volume of trade between countries has expanded remarkably as a result of the reduction of trade barriers, as well as decreasing costs in transport and communications and the increased mobility of capital across international boundaries. International and regional trade agreements have been the primary mechanism by which trade barriers have been lowered, such as the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), and subsequently the World Trade Organization (WTO) at...

Proxy Indicators For Benefitsharing

In a world with full information, contributions towards a benefit-sharing arrangements would be based on Vji(I), I 1 , ,L countries, where Vjt ( ) Vj ( ), given that the benefit-sharing fund requires contributions from each of the L countries endorsing the IU. Of course, for the reasons discussed earlier, (Wj I) is unknown for almost any definition of I, and hence, is unknown. Hence, it appears that the best one can do is to base contributions on just the Wjt portion of F,7( ).9 While existing...

Specific cost of production example

The production of a new genetically engineered crop variety must, as illustrated in Fig. 15-1, begin with high quality genetic material. Because the highest quality new cultivars are increasingly being privately held, the successful production of a new genetically engineered cultivar for commercialization requires the ability to generate high quality germplasm. The Crop Development Centre (CDC) at the University of Saskatchewan is widely respected for its traditional crop breeding activities....

Online Intellectural Property Exchanges

In their recent book on markets for technology, Arora, Fosfuri, and Gambardella (2004) explore the key benefits of markets for technology and the primary reasons that such markets fail to form. In light of their arguments, promising development aimed at solving the market failures caused by information failures and high transaction costs may be found in the institution of online intellectual property exchanges. Beginning in 1999, a number of entrepreneurial startup ventures emerged on the...

Background The uniqueness of PGRFA

In the long negotiating process to develop and agree on the ITPGRFA, a key consideration was the fact that PGRFA differs substantially from other plant genetic resources and, therefore, specific solutions were needed for their conservation and development and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits derived from their use, which would not necessarily be similar to those required for other kinds of biodiversity. Unique features of PGRFA include (i) They are essentially man-made, that is,...

Economic technical and legal issues involved in a multilateral system to regulate the conservation and sustainable use

During the negotiations for the ITPGRFA, a number of complex economic, technical, and legal issues needed to be examined and understood in order to develop, negotiate, and reach consensus on innovative concepts and provisions, based on an interdisciplinary approach. To facilitate this negotiation, the secretariat of the negotiating body, the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture commissioned a number of technical papers, as part of its series Background Study Papers...

Towards a Code of Conduct on Biotechnology as It Relates to Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture13

Following the proposal of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in the 1990s, a survey of more than 400 international experts in plant genetics identified four major areas that should be covered in the Code of Conduct biosafety, intellectual property rights, the substitution of traditional agricultural products and the development of biotechnologies appropriate for developing countries. Biosafety. Public interest groups are concerned over the possible environmental and...

U00 100 100 100 100j

While the Shapley value can address the allocation of initial endowments between world regions, it cannot address the chain of allocations from the world regional levels down to country and subcountry levels given the allocations, each level of which has its own players with varying levels of bargaining power. Methodology is developed here to capture the bargaining activity through several administrative or other political power levels. To account for negotiations over conservation of PGRFA...

Adoption Of Biotechnology In Developing Countries

Holly Ameden,1 Matin Qaim,2 and David Zilberman3 xPh.D. Candidate, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 2Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart German 3 Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract This chapter identifies the factors that lead to the adoption...

Conclusion

If a multilateral environmental agreement (MEA) requires member countries to meet specific environmental targets or to fund the provision of a global public good, then environmental indicators become necessary. An environmental indicator measures environmental quality, whether as a measure of the physical quantity itself or of the monetary impact of that quantity. For agriculture, in particular, indicators generally include measures of land-use changes between agriculture and other land uses,...

Collective Approaches To Solving The Anticommons

According to Robert Merges of the Boalt School of Law at U. C. Berkeley (Merges, 1996), theories on the economic nature of common-pool resources suggest that the roots of this problem cannot be effectively addressed through unilateral strategies instead, some form of collective solution will be needed. Historically, public-policy collective measures taken to solve the problems of IP congestion include the following Government exercise of intellectual eminent domain, purchasing key enabling...

The green revolution research paradigm

Most of the conventional breeding research that launched the green revolution was conducted by the public sector with the explicit goal of creating technologies that could be transferred internationally. International and national public sector researchers bred dwarfing genes into elite wheat and rice cultivars, causing them to produce more grain and shorter stems and enabling them to respond to higher levels of fertilizer and water. These semidwarf cultivars were made freely available to plant...

Ci

Regional status of GM crops in developing countries Source FAO-BioDec (2003). high in Latin America, its magnitude is lower in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Not surprisingly, insect pest and pathogen resistance is high on Asia and Latin America's research agendas as well as product quality traits, with Asia leading in numbers. Asia is also leading in the amount of GM crop research for abiotic stresses. In Eastern European countries in transition, research on product quality is...

Intellectual Property Informatics For Agriculture

A first practical step toward solving the problem of the anti-commons is the broad provision of IP informatics to make information about a set of interdependent technologies and the IP that protects them broadly and freely available to all concerned parties. The common availability of information would help to overcome two serious barriers to fair trade in patented technologies imperfect information and information asymmetry, situations where one or both parties in a transaction lack some of...

Collaboration As A Matter Of Priority

Before the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) came into force in 1993, the instruments for the institutional framework of PGRFA conservation management, germplasm exchange and utilization were developed in a rather ad hoc manner, based mainly on national and international codex for research work. Germplasm exchange was regulated according to the transfer of natural resources in research, i.e., free to all bona fide users and based on pro mutua communatione, the mutual exchange as it is...

The Value Of Crop Biodiversity On Farms

As a production input and private good, seed is highly rival with low cost of exclusion (Fig. 5-1). The genetic resources embodied in seed are non-rival, however, and the costs of controlling their use on farms are relatively high. This means that two farmers cannot plant the same handful of seeds, but many farmers may grow the same variety simultaneously. Controlling the flow of genes among fields is difficult, especially with predominantly cross-pollinating crops as they are managed by...