References

Alghariani, S. (2004) Water transfer versus desalination in North Africa sustainability and cost comparison. Available at www.ckl. ac.uk geography staff allan.html Allan, J.A. (2001) The Middle East Water Question Hydropolitics and the Global Economy. I.B. Tauris, London. Allan, J.A. (2002) Hydro-peace in the Middle East why no water wars A case study of the Jordan River Basin. SAIS Review 22(2), 255-272. Allan, J.A. (2003) Virtual water - the water, food, and trade nexus useful concept or...

Groundwater livelihood and poverty

Groundwater use in SSA clearly contributes to livelihood through agricultural production - in the form of irrigation supply, livestock support and drought mitigation and in domestic supplies as outlined above. In the context of SSA, the benefits of groundwater use likely accrue primarily to the poor, because they make up the vast majority of rural agricultural producers. While the general connections between groundwater, livelihood and poverty in SSA are clear, quantifying the role that...

Selfgoverning institutional arrangements

Ostrom (2001) argues that resource users are more likely to invest in designing and adopting rules to address CPR dilemmas if they perceive that (i) the benefits produced by the new sets of rules outweigh the costs of devising, monitoring and enforcement and (ii) they will enjoy those benefits. Whether these two conditions hold depends on characteristics of the resource and characteristics of the resource users. For Ostrom (2001) four resource characteristics are crucial 1. Feasible improvement...

Sustainable Yield

Many countries (e.g. the USA and India) have widely adopted the concept of 'safe yield' (i.e. annual recharge) as a sustainable extraction limit. In many instances, this adoption is necessitated by high levels of groundwater development, but it has limited ability to account for hydraulic connectivity between water resources and environmental dependencies (Custodio, 2002 see also Llamas and Garrido, Chapter 13, this volume). Australia's relatively recent development of groundwater allows a more...

Wichitas Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery project

Wichita is the largest city in Kansas and is located in the south-central part of the state, just south of the Equus Beds aquifer, the 'eastern most extension of the High Plains aquifer system' (Equus Beds Information Resource, 2005). In the 1930s, Wichita established wells in the Equus Beds and began pumping groundwater for municipal use. Running through the Equus Beds area is the Little Arkansas River, which joins the Arkansas River at Wichita. Until the early 1990s, Wichita drew heavily from...

Raising public awareness

The World Water Vision's slogan 'making water everybody's business' launched at the Second World Water Forum in 2000 (WWF2) correctly highlights the fact that everybody on the globe has a stake in water. Consequently, water is not a subject matter to be understood and handled by water specialists only, but rather a matter of concern to everybody. Politicians and other decision makers need to understand in general lines how to exploit and use the water resources properly, ensure sustainability,...

Case study 2 the Namoi River

The Namoi River catchment lies in north-east-central NSW and covers approximately 42,000 km2, as shown in Fig. 15.3. The river flows 350 km from east to west and there are three major storages on the main stem and its tributaries Keepit, Chaffey and Split Rock dams. The catchment includes part of the Liverpool Plains that has been subject to long-term investigations of fertilizer and agrochemical pollution of groundwater. Rain generally occurs in summer but is highly variable between years and...

Global Water Partnership

The Global Water Partnership (GWP), created in 1996 and based in Sweden, is a working partnership among all those involved in water management government agencies, public institutions, private companies, professional organizations, multilateral development agencies and others committed to the Dublin-Rio principles. The mission of GWP is 'to support countries in the sustainable management of their water resources'. One of the products of GWP is its 'ToolBox', a comprehensive set of guidelines...

Characteristics of Groundwater Irrigation Development in Australia

Groundwater development for irrigation has not received the significant subsidies characteristic of surface water irrigation. The process for irrigation development of groundwater has evolved directly from policies put in place to ensure that groundwater development processes could readily accommodate the high priority of remote town, as well as stock and domestic, supplies. The typical process has been for an irrigator to nominate preferred bore sites on a property, and apply for a groundwater...

The Contemporary Story of Groundwater

Groundwater is generally a reliable and good quality water source, and with modern technology for drilling, electrification and pumping, it is widely accessible throughout most parts of the world today. In fact, these technological advances are primarily accountable for the recent, remarkable increase in global abstraction of groundwater. The history of global intensive groundwater use is less than 50 years old and much of the modern increase in global water use has been contributed by...

Opportunities and Threats to Development

Villholth International Water Management Institute CABI is a trading name of CAB International CABI North American Office 875 Massachusetts Avenue 7th Floor Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Nosworthy Way Wallingford Oxfordshire OX10 8DE UK Tel +44 (0)1491 832111 Fax +44 (0)1491 833508 E-mail cabi cabi.org Tel +1 617 395 4056 Fax +1 617 354 6875 E-mail cabi-nao cabi.org Published in association with International Water Management Institute PO Box 2075 Colombo Sri Lanka CAB...

Groundwater Quality Management

Management of groundwater quality in an agricultural context has several dimensions the pollution caused by agriculture (e.g. salinization due to fertilizer use, contamination of groundwater by pesticides, overpumping of coastal aquifers and sea water intrusion, overabstraction of aquifers with underlying saline water) and the pollution caused by other actors, but with a negative impact on water quality also for irrigators. In terms of the management instruments to be used in the first case,...

Notes

1 Used in India to denote problem zones in groundwater maps. The zones are categorized based on annual groundwater withdrawals in relation to utilizable recharge more than 100 of withdrawal to recharge ratio is called 'overexploited' 85-100 'dark' 65-85 'grey' and less than 65 'white'. 2 For the past few decades, drinking and domestic water to cities and towns is supplied through pipelines sourcing from either surface water or groundwater. 3 As per the Indian Meteorological Department, a...

Regulating or not Chinas groundwater the role of the government

Over the last 50 years, China has constructed a vast and complex bureaucracy to manage its water resources. To understand the functioning of this system, it is important to first understand that, until recently, neither groundwater use nor water conservation has ever been of major concern to policymakers. Instead, the system was designed to construct and manage surface water to prevent floods, which have historically devastated the areas surrounding major rivers, and to effectively divert and...

Ecological impacts on groundwaterdependent ecosystems

The ecological impacts of drawdown of the water table on surface water bodies and streams are increasingly constraining new groundwater developments (Llamas, 1992). Drying up of wetlands, disappearance of riparian vegetation because of decreased soil moisture and alteration of natural hydraulic river regimes can all be used as indicators of overexploitation. Reliable data on the ecological consequences of these changes are not always available, and the social perception of such impacts varies...

Contrasting Local and Basin Perspectives On Artifical Recharge

The existence of more than 250,000 tanks and ponds in hard-rock-covered areas of peninsular India itself shows the importance accorded by agriculturalists and rulers for managing the surface water sources locally. However, most of the tanks are old and their storage capacity has reduced due to siltation, and recharge volume of Table 10.1. Economics of various artificial recharge methods. (From UNEP International Environment Centre, 2004.) Capital cost 1000 m3 Operational cost Artificial...

The Segura catchment

This section is mainly taken from an invited paper presented by Llamas and P rez Picazo in the 2001 Stockholm World Water Week. The term 'hydrosolidarity' has been coined mainly by professors Falkenmark and Lundquist who were the organizers of this water week. The Segura catchment is located in south-eastern Spain. Its main features are (i) surface area 19,000 km2 (ii) average annual precipitation 400 mm, ranging from 800 mm in the headwater to 200 mm in the coastal plain (iii) annual potential...

Sectoral Policy Perspectives

Groundwater policymakers face conflicting challenges in managing this chaotic economy in different areas. Particularly after 1970, agrarian growth in the region has been sustained primarily by private investments in pump irrigation. However, the development of the resource has been highly uneven. In the groundwater-abundant Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghana basin - home to 400 million of the world's rural poor in Bangladesh, Nepal Terai and eastern India -groundwater development can produce stupendous...

Subsidies for technological improvements

As mentioned earlier, a further instrument to improve groundwater management in agriculture consists of subsidies to improve irrigation efficiency by farmers' investments in better technology. This may imply support to make investments in closed conveyance pipes instead of earth canals that are subject to evaporation, shifting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation and investments in soil levelling, mulching, etc. There are a number of examples worldwide showing that these approaches work...

Making Rational Flat Tariff and Intelligent Power Supply Management Work

If power utilities undertake a refined analysis of the level and pattern of pumping by diesel pump owners in a region and shave off the potential excess pumping by Fig. 11.4. Flat electricity tariff induces farmers to pump more. Fig. 11.4. Flat electricity tariff induces farmers to pump more. Diesel pump (number of observations) * Electric pump (number of observations) Fig. 11.5. Impact of flat tariff on average annual hours of pumping weighted by pump horsepower. Fig. 11.5. Impact of flat...

Approaches for Rationing

The strongest piece of evidence in support of our argument for intelligent rationing of power supply as the way to go is that intuitively most SEBs in India have already been doing some kind of rationing of farm power supply now for more than a decade. Andhra Pradesh, where the new government announced free power, also announced that farm power supply would henceforth be restricted to 7 h day. Nobody - farmers included - considers 24 h, uninterrupted power supply to agriculture to be either a...

Concluding Comments

This chapter has shown how MENA groundwater users, water professionals and politicians have managed renewable and fossil groundwater resources during three decades. The potential demand for water doubled during this period with the doubling of the region's population. There are four main conclusions. First, renewable groundwater aquifers are too easy to utilize and to damage in the absence of a regulatory culture. The ease with which they can be turned on and off to comply with the users' needs...

Conclusion Is Groundwater Manageable

Groundwater management was neglected for a long time due to the apparent abundance of the resource. With population and economic growth and the technological options to abstract groundwater at reasonable prices from ever-greater depths, the need to actively manage the resource has become clear. This is especially the case in developing countries where the poorer segments of rural society do not have other livelihood options available, should they lose access to their safe water source, both...

Description of the aquifer and the region

The High Plains area of central USA stretches from the Rio Grand River on the south to the Canadian border on the north, and from the 'humid prairie plains' (Kromm and White, 1992, p. 1) on the east to the Rocky mountains on the west. The imprecise eastern boundary runs generally along the eastern portions of the tier of states extending from North Dakota to Texas on the south. It is generally a level, treeless, grassland surface, except along watercourses, with a windy and subhumid climate...

Water Resources Conclusion

The number of groundwater wells in India has increased from less than 100,000 in 1960 to nearly 12 million in 2006. With clear signs of aquifer depletion and continued erratic rainfall, local communities as well as governments are turning to local water-harvesting and recharge structures on a massive scale. The primary objectives of this groundwater recharge movement are to increase groundwater availability for improved security of domestic supplies and to drought-proof and protect rural...

National Framework for Groundwater Management

The National Framework for Improved Groundwater Management in Australia in 1996 (ARMCANZ, 1996a) set in train subsidiary policies and legislation in the states. Core recommendations were to publicly identify sustainable yield, allocation and use of aquifers as well as limit allocations to sustainable yields. Others included the enablement of trading of groundwater licences improved integration of surface and groundwaters management and licensing of high-yielding wells and provision of all...

Indirect levers

There are potentially powerful indirect demand-management strategies that are not even part of the academic discussion on groundwater management in the developing world. For example, it has been suggested that India Punjab's groundwater depletion problems could be easier to resolve if its export of 'virtual' groundwater in the form of rice could be reduced or stopped. IWMI researchers have suggested that in the North Indian plains, using earthen canals for recharging with flood water of monsoon...

The Pathology of Decline of a Groundwater Socioecology

A few years ago, David Seckler, the then director general of IWMI, wrote alarmingly that a quarter of India's food harvest is at risk if she fails to manage her groundwater properly. Many people today think that Seckler might have well underestimated the situation, and that if India does not take charge of her groundwater, her agricultural economy may crash. Postel (1999) has suggested that approximately 10 of the world's food production depends on overdraft of groundwater to the extent of 200...

New South Wales An Example of Integrating State and National Groundwater Policy

The total NSW groundwater resource is estimated at 5110 billion cubic metres, which is an enormous quantity of water, approximately 200 times the storage capacity of all dams in the state (DLWC, 2003). However, it has highly variable characteristics in terms of depth, yield, quality and spatial and temporal recharge. The sustainable yield is a tiny fraction of th is (0.12 ) at 6.19 billion cubic metres, of which 15 is too saline to use for most purposes. It is however a large resource and has...

The Tagus River water transfer and the future Ebro River water transfer

In 1979, almost 50 years after the first formal proposal, water from the Tagus River was transferred to the Segura catchment through a 300 km long aqueduct. The capacity of this aqueduct is about 33 m3 s or 1000 million cubic metres per year, but the maximum volume approved for transfer during the first phase was only 600 million cubic metres per year. The reality is that the average volume transferred during the first two decades of operation of the aqueduct has been about 300 million cubic...

Appropriation problems

Appropriation problems are highly local compared to provision problems. They stem from actions and choices of appropriators whose effects become apparent within a short time frame, such as during an irrigation season.5 Assignment problems, for instance, occur because people compete to use the most productive patches of a CPR and in the process they interfere with one another's harvesting activities. People may place wells too closely together, reducing the productive capacity of each of the...

Hydrogeology and Resource Availability

This explosive growth in groundwater irrigation has had little relationship with the pattern of occurrence of the groundwater resource. Figure 2.1 presents the first ever groundwater recharge map of the world prepared by researchers at the University of Kassel (Germany). It shows that in terms of long-term groundwater recharge, South Asia and the North China Plain are less well endowed compared to South America, pockets of sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia. Many scientists argue that in...

Agricultural Groundwater Use in SSA

As shown in Table 5.3, national statistics on water use are not readily available for most countries. As such it is clear that one must consult multiple and often inconsistent data sources to paint even a rudimentary picture of its use at a continental scale. This approach is of course fraught with problems. For example, most use appears to be in small rural villages, where boreholes and wells have been installed by multiple agencies government, individuals, non-governmental organizations NGOs...

The Agricultural Groundwater Revolution Setting the Stage

Villholth International Water Management Institute, 127, Sunil Mawatha, Pelawatte, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka Over the last 50 years groundwater development has played a fundamental role in agricultural production in many parts of the developing world. For example, groundwater now accounts for approximately 50 of all irrigation supply in South Asia and perhaps two-thirds of supply in the grain belts of North China. The rapid growth in use in these and other regions has...

What Do We Mean by Instruments and Institutions for Groundwater Management

Institutional arrangements, here for short called 'institutions', are described as the 'rules of the game' North, 1990 within which stakeholders act. They include formal laws and regulations, informal norms and organizations. In the context of groundwater management, we can imagine national or state water laws dealing with groundwater, irrigation laws, their regulations and decrees, as well as norms developed and applied in communities or irrigation command areas regarding groundwater...

Groundwater use rights enforcement monitoring and sanctions

The implementation and effectiveness of a groundwater use right crucially depends on enforcement capacity, sanctioning systems, water reallocation mechanisms and the need for the generation of information and its management. There is also an important linkage to pricing mechanisms see the following section . As mentioned earlier a key issue in groundwater management is the size of the groundwater user community. Groundwater aquifers can be very small, with only tens or hundreds of users, such...