Agriculture and Allied Areas

The post-green-revolution era is almost merging with the gene revolution to improve crop productivity and quality. The Indian research agenda will for some years be dominated by the exploitation of heterosis vigour and the development of new hybrids, including apomixis, genes for abiotic and biotic resist ance, developing planting material with desirable traits and the genetic enhancement of important crops. Integrated nutrient management and development of new biofertilizers and biopesticides...

PJ Dart IH Slamet Loedin and E Sukara

Area (km2) Cropland Irrigated cropland Permanent pasture Population (1999 est.) 216.1m. Population per km2 88 Ann. pop. growth rate (1998) 1.46 Life expectancy (men) 60.6 yrs Growth in real GDP (1998) 13 Inflation (1998 est.) 77 Value of agricultural exports US 1.8 bn. Agricultural products as of total exports > 6.2 Major export commodities rubber, palm oil, shrimp Major subsistence commodities rice, cassava, banana

Biosafety

Kenya now has a system for monitoring the research, testing and release of genetically engineered organisms. The existing regulatory laws for agricultural management, such as the Crop Production and Livestock Act (1926), the Plant Protection Act (1937), the Seed and Plant Varieties Act (19 72), the Fertilizers and Animal Foodstuffs Act (1963) and the Animal Diseases Act, do not have clauses specific to recombinant DNA technology. However, they may be able to be suitably modified to take into...

Neem

The programmes at research centres in Pakistan are summarized in Table 5.2. Biofertilizers The potential of certain microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to crop plants has long been known. In view of the rise in the cost of chemical fertilizers and their adverse effects on the environment, these microorganisms (collectively called biofertilizers) have become increasingly important. They are considered to be particularly important in tropical countries, where soils are often...

Agricultural Research

Organizations carrying out agricultural research in Zimbabwe include the University of Zimbabwe Department of Research and Specialist Services (DRSS) Tobacco Research Board Cotton Research Board Cattle Breeders' Association and Pig Research Board. Among international organizations, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the International Centre for the Improvement of Wheat and Maize (CIM-MYT) have programmes based in Zimbabwe. The BRI focuses its...

Tolerance to abiotic stresses

Drought and soil salinity and acidity are among the most important threats to agricultural production, causing severe yield losses of all major food crops worldwide. In China, the north-west region is prone to drought, so water supply is a major limitation for crop production in south and central China, soil acidity is a major limiting factor reducing crop yield salinity occurs in large areas in the east coastal region. Drought resistance has been the subject of many studies in several major...

Opportunities BIOTEC

The National Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) was established under the Ministry for Science, Technology and Energy in September 1983. In 1991, Thailand established the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) and BIOTEC became one of the NSTDA centres, operating autonomously outside the normal framework of civil service and state enterprises. This enabled it to operate more effectively to support and transfer technology for the development of...

Applications of Biotechnology for Poverty Reduction and Food Security

Breakthroughs in modern science have led to rapid progress in understanding the genetic basis of living organisms and the ability to use that understanding to develop new products and processes useful in human and animal health, food and agriculture and the environment. The adoption of modern biotechnology is most advanced in human health, where many new drugs, diagnostics and vaccines are based on the use of new biotechnology. The applications developed from the new methods in biotechnology...

Opportunities and Constraints

As highlighted in the on-line Nature supplement Science in Latin America 8A001A0.frameset context search), the region enjoys a unique opportunity to win a more prominent place in the world of science. In Brazil, many lines of research and development are already benefiting from the application of biotechnology tools such as marker-assisted plant and animal breeding, genomic mapping of several species, embryo transfer applied to different animal species, genetic resources characterization and...

Ana Sittenfeld Ana Mercedes Espinoza Miguel Munoz and Alejandro Zamora

Population per km2 68 Annual population growth GDP per head (1998 est.) US 6700 Agriculture products as of total exports 70 Agricultural exports (US ) (1997) 1.7 bn Major export commodities vegetables, fruit, ornamentals, coffee, banana, sugar Major commodities coffee, banana, sugar, maize, rice, bean, potato, beef

Latin America and the Caribbean

The main challenges in relation to agricultural biotechnology are management of intellectual property for both major and minor crops assessment of several research options, not only a molecular approach, in assessing how best to tackle problems and challenges to improve agricultural productivity identification of beneficiaries prioritization of work on favoured and or marginal areas use of GIOs as indicators of environmental damage and need to monitor the behaviour of GIOs in the environment...

Evolution of Agricultural Biotechnology

Biotechnology was first used in Colombia in 1973, when the National Coffee Research Centre (CENICAFE) applied tissue-culture techniques to complement its research on industrial aspects of coffee production and processing (Sasson, 1993). Flower export companies also used tissue-culture techniques to improve their competitiveness in the international market. Americaflor was the first company to do this, in 1978. Around this time, the first tissue-culture laboratories at universities were created...

Commercial Applications of Agricultural Biotechnology

The greater specificity in the handling of genes since the 1970s has meant that inventors could protect their discoveries by means of patents and other forms of intellectual property rights (IPR). This has led to an explosion of private investment in the biosciences, leading to what has been called a biotechnology revolution. Most modern biotechnology applications are in health care, where they offer new hope to patients with AIDS, genetically inherited diseases, diabetes, influenza and some...

Estate crops biotechnology

The Estate Crops Research Institute is funded partly by the government and by state-owned companies and smallholders formed into an Indonesian Association for Research and Development for Estate Crops (Asosiasi Penelitian and Pengembangan Perkebunan (AP3I)). At present there are six autonomous research centres partly funded by AP3I, although they are under AARD coffee-cocoa, sugar cane, tea, oil-palm, rubber and biotechnology (each has research stations or units). Biotechnology deals with more...

Animal production

Livestock and poultry production has steadily increased over the last 10 years but has not kept pace with demand. Animal nutrition is a key factor in increasing productivity per animal. Private companies have developed concentrate feeds for intensive production systems for poultry and pigs. Large-volume feed stocks, such as cassava chips, which could be readily produced in Indonesia, are underutilized. Demand for milk products has increased, prompting an interest in animal breeding, embryo...

Biotechnology Policy

In the early 1980s, biotechnology started to receive more attention from Indonesian scientists. Programmes and activities to exploit the potentials of biotechnology were initiated in research agencies institutes and universities. In 1985 the development of biotechnology was declared a national priority and the Office of the Minister of State for Research and Technology published a government paper entitled Pattern of Development of Biotechnology in Indonesia. This was done for two reasons (i)...

Conclusion

The Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF) established a Task Force on Biotechnology in 1995, which resulted in many recommendations in various sectors, including agriculture and livestock. More recently, the Prime Minister's High Level Commission for Science and Technology, supported by the World Bank (1996 9 7), includes a standing committee on biotechnology In spite of the massive role of multinational companies in R & D of agricultural biotechnology, the national government still has major...

Intellectual Property Rights

The IPR challenge is directly linked to the application of biotechnology tools outside the corporate world, where companies can afford to acquire rights, make alliances or develop innovations on their own. Because the patent system has undergone a process of regulatory globalization and harmonization and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights TRIPs have obliged most developing countries to move to some level of recognition of IPR in agriculture, problems that were not common to...

Privatesector Activities

The private sector is a strong force on the Zimbabwe agricultural scene. This sector includes large-scale, commercial farmers and small-scale farmers. The large commercial farm group is well organized, with formalized structures for research in crop breeding and some horticulture. Some of the major commercial farmers' groups in Zimbabwe are National Association of Dairy Farmers National Farmers' Association of Zimbabwe Commercial Grain Producers' Association Zimbabwe Tobacco Association...