In discussing PBRs, the WTO Review of art. 27.3 of TRIPS specifies that PVP is required to further the general objective of TRIPS, which is reduction of international trade barriers in agricultural commodities (Council for TRIPS, 2002). Particularly, UPOV endorses the TRIPS view that PVP will positively affect international trade barriers in agriculture. However, any benefit from introducing PBRs will operate alongside other policies that impact agriculture.
The biggest impact on agricultural commodities is felt from trade barriers. Trade barriers refer to impediments to international trade from extraneous fac tors. In agriculture, trade barriers refer to impediments affecting the agricultural commodities market. Trade barriers artificially limit demand in a country and thus decrease potential sales in that country by another country, or artificially limit the ability of one country to sell in its own or another country. Two important barriers that impact international trade in agricultural commodities are: (i) government restrictions; and (ii) lack of PVP.
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