Land Tenure Policies1

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 The Importance of Land Tenure 110

5.3 Objectives of Land Tenure Policies 111

5.4 Overview of Issues and Trends Concerning Land Tenure 116

5.4.1 Key Issues for Land Policies 116

5.4.2 Historical Trends Regarding Rights to Use Land 117

5.4.3 The Era of Landed Estates 120

5.5 The Nature of Land Rights 121

5.5.1 Forms of Property Rights 121

5.5.2 Tenure Security and Land Rights 122

5.5.3 Land Rights, Farm Size and Agricultural Productivity 125

5.5.4 Transferability of Traditional Land Rights 127

5.5.5 Transitional Issues in Moving from Customary to Formal Systems 128

5.6 Communal, Collective and Individual

Rights to Land 130

5.6.1 Communal Lands 130

5.6.2 Collective versus Individual Farms 134

5.6.3 The State as Landowner 139

5.7 Experiences with Land Reform 142

5.7.1 Return to Origins 142

5.7.2 Rationales, Failures and New Formulations 144

5.8 Policies for Land Markets 149

5.8.1 The Degree of Formalization of

Land Rights 150

5.8.2 Forms of Customary Title 156

5.8.3 Conditions on Titling 157

5.8.4 Land Leases and Rental 159

5.8.5 Share Tenancy Contracts 163

5.8.6 Policies Regarding the Sale of Agricultural Land 164

5.8.7 Transforming Collective Farms: Corporations, Private Co-operatives and Individual Farms 167

5.8.8 Transition Issues in the CIS and

Eastern Europe 171

5.8.9 Policies to Promote Co-operative

Forms in Agriculture 174

5.9 Improving Access to Land for the Poor and for Women 176

5.9.1 Land Market Mechanisms and the

Rural Poor 176

5.9.2 Improving Access to Land for

Women 185

Discussion Points for Chapter 5 191

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