The most common above ground irrigation system is the sprinkler. In sprinkler systems, water is injected into the air by one of the three types of nozzles: spray, rotor, or impact. Sprinkler systems can be used on any land that can be cultivated. Sprinklers may be solid set (in a permanent position) or movable. The common means of movement are: (1) manual-lawn sprinkler or pipe system; (2) tractor-moved-skid or wheel-mounted system; (3) self-moved-side wheel roll or big gun system; and (4) self-propelled-center pivot and lateral move system. Different modifications and variations of these systems are used. The best system depends on the topography, shape and size of the field, the amount and cost of labor for movement, and the value added for the crop. For sprinkler systems, it is important that the application rate not exceed the infiltration rate of the soil.
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