Access to Inputs and Services

The access to inputs and services can be increased by improving rural infrastructure and distribution of agricultural inputs, forming cooperatives, subsidizing agricultural investments, funding agricultural research, among others. Governments can, with or without development aid, start programs to improve infrastructure, subsidize investments, or

Table 1.4. Effects of measures to improve agricultural conditions


Positive Effects

Negative Effects


Land reclamation

Increasing the land availability for agriculture

Land redevelopment Improving the spatial conditions for growing crops and working the land


Management Fertilizer use

Pesticide use

Increasing the water availability for agriculture

Higher fertility of soils; higher yields (in the short term)

Higher yields (in the short term)

Destruction of wetlands, mangrove forest, and riverine systems Disturbance of natural river dynamics, causing floods and droughts Loss and disturbance of ecological systems

Habitat fragmentation Degradation of landscape Salinization of soils, what causes land degradation and a collapse of agricultural production Overconsumption of unrestorable water sources

Ground water contamination by nitrogen and phosphates Mining of nutrients other than nitrogen and phosphate, what causes fertility problems in the long term Decline in biodiversity Increased pest resistance to pesticides Ground water contamination fund research. Farmers can form cooperatives to get cheaper inputs or share expensive machinery such as tractors and harvesters.

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