Table 4.8 summarizes the main mechanical practices used for soil, water, and crop management, normally in conjunction with agronomic measures. These practices can be subdivided into the following mechanical methods:
• stabilizing structures.
Table 4.8. Mechanical methods for soil, water, and crop management
To modify soil slope To slowly reduce soil slope To contain erosion with low inputs To contain erosion with minimal earthmoving on steep slopes
To multiply effective rainfall To catch and hold all runoff To absorb some runoff with emergency overflow To control unavoidable runoff To control reduced runoff
To reduce the velocity of runoff and promote infiltration
To provide level areas on steep slopes, or to ease cultivation according to whether by hand, ox, or machine
To ease harvesting according to whether the crop is heavy damageable, harvested regularly or seasonally
Drainage for crops that suffer from wet feet
Bench terraces Progressive terracing Ladder terraces, Trash lines Step terraces, Hillside ditches, Intermittent terraces
Conservation bench terraces
Graded channel terraces
Step terraces, Hillside ditches, Orchard terraces, Platforms
Footpaths and farm tracks associated with orchard terraces or hillside ditches
Ridges on 2% grade, Up- and downslope beds, Small open drains up to 15%
The reader is referred to the literature [2-1Q] for more detailed information on design, construction, and maintenance criteria.
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