Pastoral nomadism is a system in which farmers (nomads) and their households are more or less continuously moving with the herd, on which they depend for food, fuel, clothing, and cash. Pastoral nomadism is found in the arid and semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa. In these areas the grass production is very low and seasonal. This means that the livestock cannot stay at one place for a long period -. Ruthenberg  distinguishes two main types of nomadism:
• total nomadism, in which the livestock owners do not live in permanent settlements, practice no regular cultivation, and move their families with their herds;
• seminomadism, in which the livestock owners have a permanent place of residence (which is kept for several years) and combine some kind of regular cultivation with long periods of travel with their herds.
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