Soil in coastal areas, along river margins, in estuaries and bays, and on land reclaimed from the open sea are subjected in varying degrees of overflow and restricted drainage caused by tidal water. The extent and frequency of overflow and drainage inpairment may vary widely, depending on the elevation and exposure of the sites to tidal water. The action of waves may cause erosion in some regions and the deposition of sand, silt, an clay in others. For centuries efforts have been made to rescue parts of these coastal areas from the sea and turn them into productive land. In this regard, perhaps the most famous project is the impoldering of the former Zuiderzee in the Netherlands, which began in the 1920s and continues to the present day.

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