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28. Kinnell, P. I. A. 1991. The effect of flow depth on sediment transport induced by rain-drops impacting shallow flows. Trans. ASAE 34:161-168.

29. Morgan, R. P. C. 1986. Soil Erosion and Conservation. London: Longman.

30. Grissinger, E. H. 1996. Rill and gullies erosion. Soil Erosion, Conservation, and Rehabilitation. ed. Agassi, M., pp. 153-167. New York: Marcel Dekker.

31. Merritt, E. 1984. The identification of four stages during microrill development. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 9:493-496.

32. Meyer, L. D. 1975. Effect of rate and canopy on rill erosion. Trans. ASAE 18:905911.

33. Savat, J., and J. De Ploey. 1982. Sheet wash and rill development by surface flow. Badland Geomorphology and Piping. eds. Bryan, R. B., and A. Yair, pp. 113-126. Norwich: Geobooks.

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38. Gilley, J. E., E. R. Kottwitz, and J. R. Simanton. 1990. Hydraulic characteristics of rills. Trans. ASAE 33(6):1900-1906.

39. Foster, G. R., L. F. Hugghins, and L. D. Meyer. 1984. A laboratory study of rill hydraulics: I. Velocity relationships. Trans. ASAE 21:790-796.

40. Foster, G. R., L. F. Hugghins, and L. D. Meyer. 1984. A laboratory study of rill hydraulics: II. Shear stress relationships. Trans. ASAE 21:797-804.

41. Poesen, J. 1987. Transport of rock fragments by rill flow: A field study. Catena Supplement 8: Rill Erosion. ed. Bryan, R. B., pp. 35-54.

42. Meyer, L. D. 1964. Mechanics of soil erosion by rainfall and runoff as influenced by slope length, slope steepness and particle size. Ph.D. Thesis, W. Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

43. Foster, G. R., W. R., Osterkamp, L. J. Lane, and D. W. Hunt. 1982. An erosion equation derived from basic erosion principles. Trans. ASAE 19(4):678- 682.

44. Knisel, W. G. 1980. CREAMS: A Field-Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems. Conservation Research Report No. 26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Science and Education Administration.

45. Rose, C. W., J. R., Williams, G. C. Sander, and D. A. Barry, 1983. A mathematical model of soil erosion and deposition processes: I. Theory for a plane land element. SoilSci. Soc. Am. J., 47: 991-995.

46. Meyer, L. D., G. R. Foster, and S. Nikolov. 1975. Effect of flow rate and canopy on rill erosion. Trans. ASAE 18(6):905-911.

47. Elliot, W. J., and J. M. Laflen. 1993. A process-based rill erosion model. Trans. ASAE 36(1):65-72.

48. Kohl, K. D. 1988. Mechanics of rill headcutting. Ph.D. Dissertation Ames, IA: Iowa State University.

49. Brown, L. C., G. R. Foster, and D. B. Beasley. 1989. Rill erosion as affected by incorporated crop residue and seasonal consolidation. Trans. ASAE 32(6):1967-1978.

50. Young, R. A., and C. A. Onstad. 1982. Erosion characteristics of three northwestern soils. Trans. ASAE 19(1):367-371.

51. Kemper, W. D., and R. C. Rosenau, 1984. Soil cohesion as affected by time and water content. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48(5):1001-1006.

52. Foster, G. R., and L. D. Meyer. 1972. A closed-form soil erosion equation for upland areas. Sedimentation, Symposium to Honor Prof. H.A. Einstein, ed. Shen, H. W., pp. 12.1-12.19. Fort Collins: Colorado State University.

53. Finkner, S. C., M. A., Nearing, G. R. Foster, and J. E. Gilley. 1989. A simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity. Trans. ASAE 32:1545-1550.

54. Mitchell, J. K., and G. D. Bubenzer. 1980. Soil loss estimation. Soil Erosion. eds. Kirkby M. J., and R. P. C., Morgan. pp. 17-62. Chichester: Wiley.

55. Schumm, S. A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Office of Naval Research Tech. Rept. 8, Columbia University.

56. Haigh, M. J. 1990. Evolution of an anthropogenic desert gully system. Erosion, Transport and Deposition Processes, Proceedings of the Jerusalem Workshop, IAHS Publ. No. 189, pp. 65-77, IAHS press, Wellingford.

57. Wischmeier, W. H., and D. D. Smith. 1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses. A Guide to Conservation Planning, Agriculture Handbook No. 537. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

58. Carter, C. E., and D. A. Parson. 1967. Field tests on the Coshocton-type wheel runoff sampler, Trans. ASAE 10(1):133-135.

59. Bazzoffi, P. 1993. Fagna-type hydrological unit for runoff measurements and sampling in experimental plot trials. Soil Technol. 6:251-259.

60. Bagarello, V., and V. Ferro. 1998. Calibrating storage tanks for plot soil erosion measurements. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms. 23.

61. Chow, V. T. 1959. Open-Channel Hydraulics, New York: McGraw Hill.

62. Ferro, V. 1992. Flow measurement with rectangular free overfall, Proc. ASCE118 (IR6):956-964.

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64. Ritchie, J. C., and J. R. McHenry. 1990. Application of radioactive fallout cesium-137 for measuring soil erosion and sediment accumulation rates and patterns: A review. J. Environ. Qual. 19:215-233.

65. Walling, D. E., and T. A. Quine. 1991. Use of 137Cs measurements to investigate soil erosion on arable fields in the UK: Potential applications and limitations, J. Soil Sci. 42:147-165.

66. Meyer, L. D., and W. C. Harmon. 1979. Multiple-intensity rainfall simulator for erosion research on row sideslopes. Trans. ASAE 22(1):100-103.

67. Torri, D., and C. Zanchi. 1991. I simulatori di pioggia: Caratteristiche ed uti-lizzazioni. La Gestione delle Aree Collinari Argillose e Sabbiose, Edizioni delle Autonomie SRL, pp. 121-127 (in Italian).

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70. Pica, M. 1994. Dynamic characteristics of rainfall. Idrotecnica 2:59-67.

71. Gunn, R., and G. D. Kinzer. 1948. The terminal velocity of fall for water droplets in stagnant air. J. Meteorol. 6:243-248.

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73. Tossell, R. W., G. J. Wall, R. P. Rudra, W. T. Dickinson, and P. H. Groenevelt. 1990. The Guelph rainfall simulator II: Part 2, A comparison of natural and simulated rainfall characteristics, Can. Agric. Eng. 32:215-223.

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4.4 Soil Conservation: Erosion Control

D. De Wrachien and G. Chisci In most cases a combination of measures is needed to reduce the effects of the processes that cause erosion and to stimulate land use so that the soil is kept permanently productive. However, it must be emphasized that none of these methods has universal application. In selecting from possible measures, the following issues must be considered [1]:

• Any measure must be suitable for the intended land use and cropping systems.

• The objectives must be relate to rainfall and soil. In high-rainfall areas, a common goal is to lead unavoidable runoff safely off the land using drains and ditches. In semiarid regions the objective is that of slowing down the runoff to nonscouring velocities to encourage infiltration or deposition of silt.

• The inputs, especially of labor, must be affordable and the benefits must be sufficient to justify the inputs.

Anyway, the final choice, among possible conservation procedures, should depend on the social and economic conditions of those involved.

There are so many different measures used in erosion control that some form of grouping is needed to describe them. Mechanical methods encompass all techniques that involve earthmoving, such as digging drains, building banks, and leveling sloping land. Anything else, nowadays, is lumped under agrobiological measures. This is appropriate for large mechanized farms where machines are used to do the earthmoving and this is followed up with improved farming methods. But the division does not suit the concept of erosion control through better land husbandry by means of mechanical protection. Moreover, it becomes artificial when it deals with progressive terracing using grass strips or live hedges. Anyway, for want of better terms, the above-mentioned approach is kept is this section. Measures special for wind erosion control are descibed in Section 4.4.3 of this chapter.

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