Evaporation from soil beneath a canopy, or from soil that is exposed to sunlight between plants, is governed by the amount of energy that is available at the soil surface to evaporate water. This energy is governed by the portion of total energy that has been consumed by plant transpiration [96, 98, 101, 102].
The maximum value for Ke corresponds to a period immediately following rain or irrigation. The Ke decays, depending on the cumulative amount of water evaporated from the surface soil layer. Thus, Ke can be calculated from
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