Step 2 Organize the Work

The work must be organized to coordinate the different activities needed. Some activities have a long lead time and should be done in time in order to be able to proceed with the next step. When, for example, some specific information is needed in a step, the garthering of this information should be finished on time in the previous step. If this is done too late, then it will cause a delay in the planning process.

A list of needed activities and planning tasks should be made in order to organize the work. This list should include the organizations and people responsible, skilled personnel and other resources needed, and the estimated time needed for each task. The tasks and activities should be placed on the list in the order necessary to complete the plan. Now that all tasks and activities are clear, the planning team can be completed (if this has not yet been done). The planning process and work plan can be drawn up as a whole. This can be done in different formats: a planning table (Table 2.1), a bar chart (Fig. 2.2), or a critical-path chart (Fig. 2.3).

Table 2.1. Example of a planning table: Land-use plan for District X

Planning Step



Responsibility Due date

1 First meeting

Identify Participants Assemble materials

Arrange venue, support staff, transport 3 Structure problems Develop questionnaire and opportunities

3.1 Problem statements Identify and interview key people

3.2 Find options for change

Prepare problem statements Set benchmarks

Summarize regulations

Director, Decisionmaker Agency library, five-year plan, national database

Administration unit, motor pool Regional statistican, consultant on public involvement

Contact list, interview forms, team vehicle field assistant

Interview data Land resources survey

(1995), district agronomist, team vehicle

Agency code book, law clerk

M. Wong

F. Sims

09/01/97 09/15/97

09/30/97 02/01/98


04/01/98 05/05/98


Figure 2.2. Example of a bar chart. Source: [6].

Each activity and task should be assigned to a member of the planning team to make sure all activities and tasks are done and to make sure every member knows his or her responsibility. This assignment of activities and tasks should be drawn up in individual, personal work plans. The work plan for the whole project should also include when meetings of the planning team need to be held. In this way it becomes clear whether all scheduled activities and tasks are done and if there are any delays. When these meetings point out that the work plan needs to be changed, the individual work plans need to be changed as well.

In the work plan the money and equipment should be allocated. Each activity gets a budget and the resources needed to complete the task are drawn up. Administrative matters and logistics also should be arranged, such as transport, equipment and office facilities for the planning team, technical support (e.g., inputs from other agencies, field assistance, laboratory and secretarial workers). Seasonal differences, holidays, contingencies, and iteration should be kept in mind while making the work plan.

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