Factors Of Soil Erosion

The soil erosion process is modified by biophysical environment comprising soil, climate, terrain and ground cover and interactions between them (Figure 4). Soil erodibility - susceptibility of soil to agent of erosion - is determined by inherent soil properties e.g., texture, structure, soil organic matter content, clay minerals, exchangeable cations and water retention and transmission properties. Climatic erosivity includes drop size distribution and intensity of rain, amount and frequency of rainfall, run-off amount and velocity, and wind velocity. Important terrain characteristics for studying soil erosion are slope gradient, length, aspect and shape. Ground cover exerts a strong moderating impact on dissipating the energy supplied by agents of soil erosion. The effect of biophysical processes governing soil erosion is influenced by economic, social and political causes (Figure 4).

Agricultural Meteorology Important
Figure 3: Off-site economic impact of soil erosion (Lal, 2001)

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