## Image Rectification And Registration

Geometric distortions manifest themselves as errors in the position of a pixel relative to other pixels in the scene and with respect to their absolute position within some defined map projection. If left uncorrected, these geometric distortions render any data extracted from the image useless. This is particularly so if the information is to be compared to other data sets, be it from another image or a GIS data set. Distortions occur for many reasons.

For instance distortions occur due to changes in platform attitude (roll, pitch and yaw), altitude, earth rotation, earth curvature, panoramic distortion and detector delay. Most of these distortions can be modelled mathematically and are removed before you buy an image. Changes in attitude however can be difficult to account for mathematically and so a procedure called image rectification is performed. Satellite systems are however geometrically quite stable and geometric rectification is a simple procedure based on a mapping transformation relating real ground coordinates, say in easting and northing, to image line and pixel coordinates.

Rectification is a process of geometrically correcting an image so that it can be represented on a planar surface , conform to other images or conform to a map (Fig. 3). That is, it is the process by which geometry of an image is made planimetric. It is necessary when accurate area, distance and direction measurements are required to be made from the imagery. It is achieved by transforming the data from one grid system into another grid system using a geometric transformation.

Rectification is not necessary if there is no distortion in the image. For example, if an image file is produced by scanning or digitizing a paper map that is in the desired projection system, then that image is already planar and does not require rectification unless there is some skew or rotation of the image. Scanning and digitizing produce images that are planar, but do not contain any map coordinate information. These images need only to be geo-referenced, which is a much simpler process than rectification. In many cases, the image header can simply be updated with new map coordinate information. This involves redefining the map coordinate of the upper left corner of the image and the cell size (the area represented by each pixel).

Ground Control Points (GCP) are the specific pixels in the input image for which the output map coordinates are known. By using more points than necessary to solve the transformation equations a least squares solution may be found that minimises the sum of the squares of the errors. Care should be exercised when selecting ground control points as their number, quality and distribution affect the result of the rectification.

Once the mapping transformation has been determined a procedure called resampling is employed. Resampling matches the coordinates of image pixels to their real world coordinates and writes a new image on a pixel by pixel basis. Since the grid of pixels in the source image rarely matches the grid for

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