IRS Satellite Series

The Indian Space programme has the goal of harnessing space technology for application in the areas of communications, broadcasting, meteorology and remote sensing. The important milestones crossed so far are Bhaskara-1 and 2 (1979) the experimental satellites, which carried TV Cameras and Microwave Radiometers. The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite was the next logical step towards the National operational satellites, which directly generates resources information in a variety of application areas such as forestry, geology, agriculture and hydrology. IRS -1A/1B, carried Linear Imaging Self Scanning sensors LISS-I & LISS-II (Table 6). IRS-P2 was launched in October 1994 on PSLV-D2, an indigenous launch vehicle. IRS-1C, was launched on December 28, 1995, which carried improved sensors like LISS-III, WiFS, PAN Camera, etc. Details of IRS series platforms are given in the following section. IRS-P3 was launched into the sun synchronous orbit by another indigenous launch vehicle PSLV - D3 on 21.3.1996 from Indian launching station Sriharikota (SHAR). IRS-1D was launched on 29 September 1997 and IRS-P4 was launched on 26 - 5-1999 on-board PSLV from Sriharikota.

IRS-P4 carrying an Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) was launched on May 26, 1999. OCM has 8 narrow spectral bands operating in visible and near-infrared bands (402-885 nm) with a spatial resolution of 360 m and swath of 1420 km. IRS-P4 OCM thus provides highest spatial resolution compared to any other contemporary satellites in the international arena during this time frame. The MSMR with its all weather capability is configured to have measurements at 4 frequencies (6.6, 10.6, 18 & 26 GHZ) with an overall swath of 1360 km. The spatial resolution is 120, 80, 40 and 40 km for the frequency bands of

Satellite Name

Launch

Sensors

Types

Range

(microns)

(km)

Revisit Time

VMI

Multi-spectral

0.78-0.89( NIR) 1.58-1.75(SWIR)

1000

600x120

1 day

SPOT -5

May 2002

HRS

Multi-spectral

0.79-0.89 (NIR) 1.58-1.75 (SWIR)

o o o o

60

HRG

Pan

1

0.61-0.68

5 m, combined to generate a 2.5 metre product.

60

26 days

Pan

1

0.61-0.68

10m (re-sampled at every 5 m along track)

60

SPOT-4

March 24, 1998

VMI

Multi-spectral

4

4

Same as SPOT 4

1000

26 days

HRV

Multi-spectral

0.79-0.89 (NIR) 1.58-1.75 (SWIR)

20

60

Pan

1

0.61-0.68

10

60

Satellite Name

Launch

Sensors

Types

Range

(microns)

(km)

Revisit Time

SPOT-2 & 3

1990 & March 1998

HRV

Multi-spectral

0.79-0.89

20

60

26 days

Pan

1

0.51-0.73

10

60

SPOT-1

1986

HRV

Multi-spectral

3

Same as SPOT 2

20

-do-

26 days

Pan

1

-do-

10

-do-

Satellite Name

Launch

Sensors

Types

No. of Bands

Spectral Range (microns)

(km)

Revisit Time

IRS-P4 (Oceansat)

May 26, 1999

OCM

Multi-spectral

8

0.4 - 0.885

360 m

1420 km

2 days

MSMR

RADAR

4

6.6,10.65, 18, 21 GHz

120, 80, 40 and 40 kms

1360 km

IRS-ID

September,

WiFS

Multispectral

2

0.62-0.68 (red)

189

774

5 day

1997

0.77-0.86 (NIR)

LISS III

Multispectral

3

0.52-0.59 (green)

23

142

24-25 days

0.62-0.68 (red)

0.77-0.86 (NIR)

1

1.55-1.70 (SWIR)

70

148

PAN

PAN

1

6

70

IRS-1C

1995

WiFS

Multispectral

2

0.62-0.68 (red)

189

810

5 day

0.77-0.86 (NIR)

LISS III

Multispectral

3

0.52-0.59 (green)

23.6

142

24-25 days

0.62-0.68 (red)

0.77-0.86 (NIR)

1

1.55-1.70 (SWIR)

70.8

148

PAN

PAN

1

5.8

70

Satellite Name

Launch

Sensors

Types

No. of Bands

Spectral Range (microns)

(km)

Revisit Time

IRS-1B

1991

LISS-I

Multispectral

4

450-520

72.5

148

22 days

0.52-0.59

0.62-0.68

0.77-0.86 (NIR)

LISS-II

Multispectral

4

(same as LISS I)

36.25

74

IRS-1A

1988

LISS-I

Multispectral

4

Same as above

72.5

148

LISS-II

Multispectral

4

Same as above

36.25

74

22 days

6.6., 10.6, 18 and 21 GHz. MSMR will also be in a way a unique sensor as no other passive microwave radiometer is operational in the civilian domain today and will be useful for study of both physical oceanographic and meteorological parameters.

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