The study site is selected keeping in view the area covering different forest types, structure and undergrowth conditions. Southern part of the Doon valley of the Dehra Dun district of Uttaranchal state (lat. 30° 00' to 30° 16' N; long. 78° 00' to 78° 18' E) was selected for the study. The terrain of the area is irregular and undulating. The summer temperature varies from 38.5°C to 16.7°C and in winters it ranges from 23.6°C to 5.4°C. Precipitation varies from 175 cm to 228.6 cm per annum. The slope ranges from moderate to little bit steep towards the stream lines. The climate is relatively moist tropical. The forest types are mainly North Indian tropical moist Sal forest, North Indian tropical dry deciduous forest, khair and sissoo dominated riverine forest, scrub and degraded forests.
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