References

Desjardins, A.E. (2006) Fusarium Mycotoxins Chemistry, Genetics and Biology. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. FAO. (2004) Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. Food and Nutrition Paper 81. Rome, Italy. Fotso, J., Leslie J.F. and Smith, J.S. (2002) Production of beauvericin, moniliformin, fusaproliferin, and fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 by ex-type strains of fifteen Fusarium species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 5195-5197. Gallup, L.L. and Sachs, J.D. (2001) The...

Aflatoxin management in peanut

Aflatoxins Bi and Gi are the most commonly produced forms in peanut. These toxins are involved in several human diseases, particularly liver cancer and growth defects in children. Aflatoxin interactions with Hepatitis B and C viruses result in relatively high levels of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Aflatoxins also are toxic to livestock, including ruminants, poultry, birds and fish, when contaminated meal is used in their feed. Due to its human and livestock health implications, aflatoxin...

Occurrence and toxicity of aflatoxins

In Eastern and Southern Africa, as in most developing countries, aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins from the point of view of occurrence, toxicity and economy. The aflatoxins are produced primarily by strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The four major aflatoxins commonly reported in foods are aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. In grains, aflatoxins are primarily a problem in maize although other grains such as sorghum, millet, and wheat also may be contaminated...

Jia Sheng Wang and Timothy D Phillips

Cost-effective interventions that reduce human diseases and death from aflatoxin exposure are high priorities particularly for developing nations. A calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil , when mixed at low inclusion rates with animal feeds can act as a selective enterosor-bent for aflatoxins. NovaSil sequesters aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract and neutralizes their toxic effects by reducing the bioavailability of the toxins in the blood and other organs. These findings are especially...

Oil

A long processing procedure for the preparation of kuli-kuli, a peanut-based food in West Africa. The efficacy of sorting depends on the extent of grain contamination (Martin et al, 1999), and the ability of the people who do it (Fandohan et al, 2005). People trained to easily recognize diseased grains execute this process more efficiently (Desjardins et al, 2000). Sorting also depends on the goodwill of the people in charge and their willingness to spend enough time on this operation...

Nutrient utilization and effects of mycotoxins on the gut barrier

Based on the observation that mycotoxins reduce weight gain and feed conversion, mycotoxins were hypothesized to have a direct effect on the intestines (Li et al., 2005). A malabsorption syndrome is a common result of exposure to aflatoxins, ochratoxins or trichothecenes. Measurable signs of the malabsorption syndrome are decreased transport of soluble nutrients and (fat-soluble) vitamins. Aflatoxin Bj and ochratoxin A were the first toxins known to induce hypocarotinoedemia and reduced tissue...

Provisions for ochratoxin A deoxynivalenol zearalenone fumonisin Bi B2 and T2 and HT2 toxins in feeds

At the request of the Commission the EFSA adopted opinions on the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol on 2 June 2004 (34), zearalenone on 28 July 2004 (35), ochratoxin A on 22 September 2004 (36), and fumonisins on 22 June 2005 (37). Deoxynivalenol has toxic effects in humans and all other animal species investigated thus far. Species sensitivity varies considerably, but pigs are generally recognized as the most sensitive animal species. The initial adverse effect observed after deoxynivalenol exposure...

Marina Miraglia Barbara de Santis Elena Pannunzi Francesca Debegnach and Carlo Brera

Sound strategies for the meaningful evaluation of mycotoxin contamination should include (i) identification of the sites (where) and time (when) that lots are to be sampled, and (ii) a protocol to ensure that the test sample is representative of the lot from which it was taken. In this chapter we detail the European norms for sampling for aflatoxins in cereals, milk, dried fruits, dried figs, peanuts, nuts, spices and baby foods, for ochratoxin A in cereals, coffee, dried fruits, spices, wine,...

B P 320

Res. University of Ghana Legon, Accra Ghana Kenya National Assembly (Parliament) e-mail mwancha yahoo.com Sarah Olembo Directorate for Rural Economy and Agriculture of the African Union P. O. Box 3243 Addis Ababa Ethiopia Monica Olsen National Food Administration P. O. Box 622 SE-75126 Uppsala Sweden Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) Apdo. Postal 6-641 06600 Mexico, D.F. Mexico National Center for Food Quality and Risk Assessment...

Risk assessment of mycotoxins in animal feed materials

The adverse biological effects exerted by mycotoxins have been subjected to various risk assessment strategies, most of them specifically addressing potential risk for humans. EF-SA has generated a series of evaluations of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, ergot alkaloids and zearalenone, that specifically address adverse animal health effects (EFSA 2004a,b,c, 2005a,b,c). These evaluations were intended to provide the scien tific rationale for setting guidance levels...

Wheat

Fusarium head blight and related toxins Several Fusarium species are widespread pathogens of soft and durum wheats worldwide, including all European cereal-growing areas where they may cause stem and ear rots and severely reduce crop yields. In addition, several Fusarium strains can produce mycotoxins either in preharvest infected plants in the fields or in stored grain (Bottalico, 1998). The occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat is of great concern worldwide, because their presence in processed...

Martin Gilmour and Marianne Lindblom on behalf of the Working Group on Ochratoxin A in cocoa

The presence of ochratoxin A in cocoa products has been reported. This chapter describes work by the European chocolate and cocoa industry and trade to determine where ochratoxin A enters the cocoa supply chain and how to minimize it. Ochratoxin A can be found in beans from most producing countries. Ochratoxin A is produced in the beans in the producing countries and toxin levels do not seem to increase during shipping or during storage in consuming countries. Och-ratoxin A levels increase at...

Types of aflatoxin

Hundreds of fungal species from > 12 fungal genera produce > 300 identified mycotoxins which can pose a threat to the health of at least some mammalian species. Of these myco-toxins, the aflatoxins are the greatest known concern because they are both highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic. Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by three fungal species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nominus, of which A. flavus is the most common. These fungi...

Regulations for mycotoxins

Mycotoxin problems differ by geographic region and by crop. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) updated information on worldwide mycotoxin regulations in 2003 (FAO, 2004). This survey found that at least 98 countries had regulations for food and or animal feed in 2002, an increase of 30 compared to 1995. The regulatory requirements differ substantially by country, although several regulations have been (or are being) harmonized in countries belonging to various economic communities. In...

Mycotoxin Work at Codex Standard setting

The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) is an intergovernmental body of 174 member countries with a joint FAO WHO secretariat (Codex Alimentarius, 2003a) that facilitates world trade and protects the health of the consumer by developing harmonized international standards for food. Within the CAC, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC Codex Alimentarius, 2003c) sets maximum limits (standards) for additives and contaminants in food, which are critical in trade conflicts....

General principles and objectives of food law

General food law applies to all stages of the production, processing and distribution of food and also of feed produced for, or fed to, food-producing animals. Food law pursues one or more CAB International 2008. Mycotoxins Detection Methods, Management, Public Health - 77 -and Agricultural Trade (eds. J. F. Leslie et al.). general objectives including (i) a high level of protection of human health, (ii) protection of consumers' interests, and, where appropriate, (iii) protection of animal...

Effects of mycotoxins on reproduction and fertility

One of the most prominent toxins associated with impairment of the reproductive cycle, is zearalenone. Pigs are the most sensitive animal species, and this sensitivity is related to the metabolic conversion of zearalenone into its a-hydroxy metabolite, a-zearalenol, which has a higher estrogenic potency than does the parent molecule. Ruminants are less sensitive to zearalenone as a-zearalenol is produced in the rumen by the rumen microorganisms (Maleki-nejad et al, 2006). Intestinal absorption...

Purpose

Primary prevention Minimize fungal infestation and aflatoxin contamination Cultivation of A. flavus resistant varieties Control field infection by following appropriate phytosanitary measures Seed treatment and fungicide application Appropriate scheduling of planting, harvest and post-harvest Application of soil amendments, e.g., gypsum, farmyard manure, etc. Lower moisture content of seed after harvest and during storage Add preservatives to prevent insect infestation and fungal contamination...

Future studies on immune effects of aflatoxin and other mycotoxins

Currently, there is a scarcity of data on the immunosuppressive effects of mycotoxins in humans. Future research needs to be conducted to i) establish the association between my-cotoxin exposure in humans and modulation of various aspects of immune function ii) determine the mode of action of the different mycotoxins and their interaction and iii) evaluate immunomodulatory interactions between mycotoxins, nutritional factors and infectious agents, especially those that are immunosuppressive,...

Different Form Of Aspergillus Uniseriate And Biseriate

The taxonomy of this group of fungi depends on the shape of the conidial heads with the distinction between uni- and biseriate conidial heads of particular importance (Raper and Fennell, 1965). Among the uniseriates, Aspergillus aculeatus and Aspergillus japonicus have been isolated from grapes. Identification of these species based on morphology is not easy, but is not particularly relevant since their ability to produce ochratoxin A has never been confirmed. Among the biseriates, Aspergillus...

FAO capacity building activities in the mycotoxin area

Programs for prevention and control of mycotoxins are very important due to the impact of these contaminants on consumer safety (IARC, 1993), food availability and trade. Despite many years of research and the introduction of good practices in the food production, storage and distribution chain, mycotoxins continue to be a problem. In 1996, the UN Commission on Sustainable Development approved a work program on indicators of sustainable development that included mycotoxins in food as one...

Maximum levels for aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by certain species of Aspergillus, usually at high temperatures and humidity levels. Aflatoxins may be present in a large number of foods, e.g., nuts, groundnuts, dried fruit, cereals (especially maize) and spices. The European Scientific Committee for Food expressed in its opinion of 23 September 1994 (12) that aflatoxins are geno-toxic carcinogens. For such substances there is no threshold below which no harmful effect is observed, and, therefore, no...

Immunotoxicity of other mycotoxins

Several other mycotoxins, beside aflatoxin, are present in the food crops consumed by people chronically exposed to aflatoxin (Cardwell, 200i). Fusarium mycotoxins, including fumonisins produced primarily by F. verticillioides, and deoxynivalenol (DON, sometimes termed vomitoxin) produced primarily by F. graminearum, are contaminants of food in areas of the world where people are exposed to aflatoxin. These mycotoxins occur worldwide on maize, wheat and other cereal grains (Bullerman, 1996)....

Richard T Awuah Kwaku O Agyemang Simon C Fialor and Curtis M Jolly

We conducted surveys in Ghana in 1999 and 2003 to assess the level of awareness of afla-toxins and their relevant harmful effects. The first survey was of peanut farmers, poultry farmers, retailers, processors, feed millers and consumers. It found very poor awareness of the problem, with only 8 of the 1983 respondents indicating knowledge of the word aflatoxin. The second survey was of medical doctors, nurses, agriculturists, pharmacists, biologists and other professionals. This survey found a...

Export constraints

Aflatoxins have tremendous economic impact on international trade in the form of losses in African exports to the European Union and the United States. Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts is one of the most important constraints to their trade. Peanuts are the most important cash crop in most countries of western and southern Africa. Africa produces 20 of global production, 60 of which comes from West Africa, mostly from Senegal, Ghana and Nigeria (Mare et al., 2005). In these three countries,...

Importance of mycotoxins to economies and health

The wide range of mycotoxins recognized as potential food contaminants are discussed elsewhere in this volume as are details of the regulations and requirements for trade in mycotoxin-prone commodities (FAO, 2004). We focus on the consequences of these food contaminants both in developing and developed countries. The obvious consequences, and those that have attracted the most attention and action, are related to trade and the potential of these compounds to be non-tariff trade barriers in...

Acute aflatoxicosis in Eastern Kenya

Since May 2004, acute aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya has claimed the lives of over 100 people, with the every-day levels of aflatoxins far exceeding maximum safe consumption levels. FAO coordinated a training of trainers for extension staff to raise awareness of mycotoxin contamination and to develop postharvest practices for aflatoxin control. To ensure sustainability, trainees sensitized farmer groups and helped develop action plans for aflatoxin control at the farm level. The action plans were...

Present situation

Mycotoxins are a problem in the Mediterranean basin as a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local produce. The type and level of mycotoxins vary by country and in some cases by geographic location within a country. The results of existing studies are best summarized by product. This fruit is a good substrate for fungal invasion and aflatoxin formation. Figs are one of the top Turkish export commodities, so intensive studies have been carried out on the...

Ochratoxin A

The ochratoxins (ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B) are produced by Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus carbonarius (Frisvad and Thrane, 2000). In warm climates, such as those found in West and Central Africa, ochratoxin production is more commonly associated with A. ochraceus than it is with P. verrucosum, which often produces ochratoxin A in temperate climates (Sweeney and Dobson, 1998). Ochratoxin A is the major metabolite found as a natural contaminant of cereal grains...

Brian G Shelton and John F Leslie

The potential for a wide variety of fungal toxins to cause adverse health effects from the ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated foods and feeds is a well-documented and widely accepted health problem of global importance. Some of these fungal metabolites are extremely toxic even at very low concentrations and are included as possible bioterrorism agents. Consequently, detecting the presence of mycotoxins in food, and knowledge of its (their) concentration(s) is important in assessing the disease...

Economic impacts of aflatoxin

Four potential impacts of aflatoxin have been identified (Lubulwa and Davis, 1994) (i) deterioration of the food and nutritional quality of agricultural products with an accompanying reduction in sensory characteristics, e.g., taste, odor, texture and color, (ii) health-related productivity losses due to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans who consume aflatoxin-contaminated food over an extended period of time, (iii) loss of income from livestock resulting from feeding...

Immunomodulation by aflatoxin in humans exposed to dietary aflatoxin

Only two studies (Turner et al., 2003 Jiang et al., 2005) are available on the association between aflatoxin levels and immune status function in humans chronically exposed to aflatox-ins in their diets. In these studies, aflatoxin Bralbumin adducts in blood was used as a bio-marker of aflatoxin exposure. The aflatoxin Bi assay is a sensitive method that measures aflatoxin that is covalently bound to albumin in peripheral blood (Nyathi et al., 1987) and reflects aflatoxin exposure in the...

Peter J Cotty Claudia Probst and Ramon Jaime Garcia

Aflatoxins are potent poisons that contaminate crops in warm regions worldwide and reduce health and economic welfare in several portions of Africa. Crops are contaminated in two phases (i) Aspergillus species infect crops during development and (ii) after maturation contamination builds during exposure to warm humid conditions. Identification of the exact fungi causing contamination can provide clues to management strategies. Crops usually are infected by complex mixtures of...

Trichothecene production preharvest

The key preharvest considerations are the environmental conditions and the range of inputs into intensive monoculture cereal crop systems. The key hazard associated with natural contamination with trichothecenes, especially deoxynivalenol, in wheat preharvest in Europe is the presence of strains from one or more Fusarium spp. infecting the growing crop. Fusarium spp. are plant pathogens, some of which cause Fusarium head blight, also known as ear blight or head scab, which results in...

Walter F O Marasas Wentzel C A Gelderblom Gordon S Shephard and Hester F Vismer

The five most important naturally occurring mycotoxins in human foods and animal feeds are aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin. Risk assessment is used to manage the risk from mycotoxins to protect human and animal health. Conventional risk assessment has two major components, i.e., exposure assessment and hazard assessment, which data are used to establish Maximum Tolerated Levels (MTLs). Most countries have established MTLs for total aflatoxins ranging from 4-20...

Jonathan H Williams

The generally accepted model for the management of mycotoxins is regulation and the institutions usually identified as having a stake in mycotoxin contamination represent either producers suppliers or regulators consumers at both the global and the national levels. Stakeholders also service the need for analysis and enforcement of the regulations in trade. Consumers, although paying more, are passive stakeholders. The regulatory approach is effective for developed country food systems, but is...

Paola Battilani

Ochratoxin

Ochratoxin A has been frequently detected in grapes and its derived products since 1996, with contamination limits fixed by the European Commission for dried vine fruits, wine and grape juice to protect consumers. Ochratoxin A is produced in vineyards, primarily by Aspergillus carbonarius. Meteorological conditions are a major factor in determining risk areas and years. The cropping system also can significantly influence the final toxin content in bunches. Ochratoxin A can increase post...

Maximum levels for Fusarium toxins

A number of Fusarium fungi produce different mycotoxins in the trichothecene class including deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin, as well as some other chemically unrelated toxins, e.g., zearalenone and fumonisins. The Fusarium fungi commonly are found on cereals grown in the temperate and tropical regions of the Americas, Europe and Asia. Several of the toxin-producing Fusarium species can produce, to at least some degree, two or more of these toxins. The European Scientific...

Thin Layer Chromatography Molicular Imprinted Printed Testing Rapid

LFD Lateral Flow Device FPIA Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay IR Infrared Spectroscopy NIR, near-infrared MIR, mid-infrared Immunosensors Biosensors Surface Plasmon Resonance SPR Fiber Optic Immunosensors FOI Quartz Crystal Microbalance QCM Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes SPCE MIP Molecularly Imprinted Polymer. LFD Lateral Flow Device FPIA Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay IR Infrared Spectroscopy NIR, near-infrared MIR, mid-infrared Immunosensors Biosensors Surface Plasmon Resonance...

Forecasting deoxynivalenol DONcast

In most developing countries an early warning system is needed for mycotoxin contamination alerts. In 2001-2002 a Fusarium outbreak in the wheat crop in Uruguay resulted in serious economic losses. An electronic deoxynivalenol rapid-alert forecasting system based on a Canadian model that links weather patterns, rainfall, field trials on deoxynivalenol content and crop information Hooker et al., 2002 was tested in Uruguay as part of an FAO project. DONcast forecasts have two uses to assist with...

Kerstin Hell Pascal Fandohan Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Sebastian Kiewnick Richard Sikora and Peter J Cotty

Pre- and postharvest contamination of aflatoxin in maize is a major health deterrent for people in Africa where maize production has increased dramatically. This chapter highlights management options for pre- and postharvest toxin contamination in maize. Sound crop management practices are an effective way of avoiding, or at least diminishing, infection by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin production. Pre- and postharvest practices that reduced aflatoxin contamination include the use...

Integrated management

Mycotoxin contamination of food- and feedstuffs has become a top priority issue in human and animal health. In traded goods, limits on mycotoxins are becoming ever more restrictive and have become a major trade barrier for agricultural products from Lesser Developed Countries LDCs in international markets Pitt, 1995 Rosner, 1998 . Mold and mycotoxin contamination may be detected in any point of the supply chain. The climate in tropical and subtropical countries offers ideal conditions for...

Maximum level for rye ergot

A maximum level of 1000 g g of rye ergot Claviceps purpurea sclerotia was established by Directive 2002 32 EC for all feeds containing unground cereals. The Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of EFSA adopted an opinion on request from the Commission related to ergot as undesirable substance in animal feed on 19 April 2005 33 . The term ergot refers to fungal structures produced by Claviceps species that develop in place of kernels on grain ears or seeds on grass heads, which are...

Farid Waliyar P Lava Kumar Aoua Traor Bonny R Ntare Bamory Diarra and Ondi Kodio

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are common contaminants of peanut Arachis hypogea and a major threat to consumers, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin contamination is a serious concern given their hepatotoxic properties and their widespread occurrence during cultivation, harvest, drying, storage, transit and distribution. Pre-harvest infection by A. flavus is the major cause of aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Its prevention is a complicated...