Mycotoxins can have adverse effects on humans that consume contaminated foods and there is constant need for surveillance of foods for the level of mycotoxins present. Lack of enforceable regulations of maximum tolerance levels (MTL) also is a problem in many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. Only Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa, and Zimbabwe have official regulations on aflatoxins in foods (FAO, 2004). Most of the countries in the region need to develop regulations on acceptable levels of mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, in human food. Information on the regulation of other my-cotoxins is lacking and most probably does not exist in most countries in the region. The mycotoxin issue in most of these countries needs to be viewed in the context of food safety, health and agricultural issues (Shephard, 2004). The establishment of mycotoxin regula-

Table 4. Occurrence of zearalenone in cereals and cereal-based food commodities reported in several countries from Eastern and Southern Africa.



Conc. Range (ng/g)



Sorghum meal

Not Detected - 100

Doko et al., 1996

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