Control Pointa

Control type

Tool

Impact

Harvest

Storage before drying and during drying (in near-ambient dryers)

Storage

Cereal processing industry - Intake

Cereal processing industry Milling industry

Malting industry -

Intake Malting industry

Brewing industry -

Intake Brewing industry

Regulatory control

GSP/ CCP

GAP Keep grain and machinery clean;

remove old grain & dust CCP Model predicting safe storage time (critical limits) Monitoring for toxin and producing fungi (LFDs and ELISAs) Data on environmental conditions conducive to growth and ochratoxin A production Silo design and maintenance

Critical limits for remoistening

Food grade antioxidants and natural control measures to prevent toxin formation in wet grain CCP Monitoring for toxinb and producing fungi (LFDs and ELISAs) < 1000 cfu/g P. verrucosum in wheat

Monitoring fungus (DYSG, LFD, ELISA, and PCR) GMP Reductive measures during extrusion and baking GMP Reductive measures during milling

CCP < 3% internal infection or < 400 cfu/g of P. verrucosum in barley GMP Control temperature during malting

CCP Monitoring toxinb in malt (LFD & ELISA)

GMP Fate of ochratoxin A during brewing

CCPs Monitoring toxinb (LFD & ELISA)

% toxin reduction not estimable, but significant Up to 100% toxin reduction

% toxin reduction not estimable, but useful tools in DSS

% toxin reduction not estimable, but significant Up to 100% toxin reduction

> 80% toxin reduction possible, but not yet economically feasible

Baking up to 5-10%, extrusion up to 40% Cleaning 2-3%, scouring 3-44%, milling up to 60% Up to 100% toxin reduction

Reducing temp. from 16-18°C to 12-14°C reduces toxin by 4*

Up to 8G% toxin reduction

^Abbreviations used: CCP, Critical Control Point; cfu, colony forming units; DSS, decision support systems; DYSG,Dichloran Yeast Extract Sucrose 18% Glycerol Agar; ELISA, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay; GAP, Good Agricultural Practice; GMP, Good Manufacturing Practice; GSP, Good Storage Practice; OTA, ochratoxin A; PCR, Polymerase Chain Reaction; LFD, lateral flow device. bThe critical limits at these points are the same as the legislative limits (currently 5 and 3 ng/g for unprocessed cereals and cereal products, respectively).

No other studies have been conducted of controlled atmosphere effects on growth and ochra-toxin A production by P. verrucosum, although some information exists for some Aspergillus and Fusarium species. For example, Paster et al. (1983) reported that ochratoxin A production by A. ochraceus was completely inhibited by > 30% CO2 on agar-based media after 14 days suggesting that there are differences between mycotoxigenic species. Thus, for the efficient storage of moist cereals > 50% CO2 concentrations probably need to be achieved rapidly to prevent ochratoxin A contamination in storage or during transport.

Various postharvest treatments have been evaluated for their potential to prevent growth of P. verrucosum and to minimize ochratoxin A accumulation in stored grain. Essential oils, resveratrol and lactic acid bacteria all can limit ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and A. ochraceus on grain (Ricelli et al., 2002; Fanelli et al., 2003; Hope et al., 2005b). However, while some essential oils, e.g., thyme, cinnamon leaf and clove bud, and antioxidants, especially resveratrol, are quite effective, in pilot scale tests the economics of treatment prevents the implementation of these controls at the present time. In small scale storage experiments and experimental maltings, no inhibitory effect attributable to the selected lactic acid bacterial strain was observed.

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