South Korea

1.2-5.8 (Park et al., 2004)


6.5-53 (Hall and Wild, 1994)

Western Europe

0.3-1.3 (Henry et al., 1998)

United States

18 ng/person/day (Henry et al., 1998)

aTranskei province.

role of aflatoxin in these risk factors. Jolly et al. (Chapter 5) observed decreased cellular immunity in the most aflatoxin exposed half of the naturally exposed population in Ghana. The two most important risk factors; underweight (14.9% of DALYS) and risky sexual behavior and HIV (10.2% of DALYS) are correlated with aflatoxin exposure. The underweight status of children in West Africa has been related to their historic aflatoxin exposure as measured by AF-albumin adduct and interventions to decrease the exposure have been able to reverse this situation (Gong et al., 2002, Chapter 6). In the case of HIV the connection remains statistical. Based on data in Table 1 and the data for HIV in those countries (UNAIDS, 2004) the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and HIV is statistically significant (p < 0.057). The statistical relationship is supported by mechanistic linkages (Williams et al, 2006).

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