M

maceration 252

machete 236, 237

machinery 379

macroarray 269

macrophage 42, 44-48, 161

alveolar 46

dysfunction 45

function 45

phagocytosis 42, 45

spleen 46

Magnaporthe 267

magnesium (Mg) 305, 403

maintenance 364

84-86, 88-91, 96, 103-112, 117-122, 127131, 139, 141, 145-149, 156, 158, 160, 175, 177-179, 195-197, 201-203, 219226, 257-264, 269, 277-282, 284, 285, 288, 289, 293, 295, 302, 309-313, 322, 327, 350, 360, 361, 372 373, 378, 396, 403, 404, 406, 407, 409, 413-416, 421

agronomy 261

bran 146

breeding 417

materials 279, 285

program 277, 285

Bt hybrids 35, 259

by product 96, 146

clean 128

commercial 118

line 279

consumption 220, 302, 404

contaminated.54, 128, 130, 149, 278, 288, 310,312

crosses

backcross 280

cultivar 277, 278

cultivation 147, 149

debris 372

distribution 128

dough 105, 111

drying 418

infected 149

Fusarium 139

pink 146-148, 196

red 146-148, 196

rot..140, 146, 148, 149, 260, 261, 278280, 283, 284, 416

elite line 277

embryo 258, 262

endophyte 201

endosperm 262

fermented 328

field 35

flakes 146, 176

flour 176

forage 96

fumonisin-contaminated 120

genotype 13, 222, 278-280

germplasm 261, 277-280, 284, 416, 417

grade 127

grain 278, 312, 418

harvest 128

high-yielding cultivars 13

home-grown 29-31, 33, 128

husk 224, 310

cover 279, 283, 284

incomplete 224

commercial 260

line 277, 279-285

resistant 277, 282

kernel .. 145-147, 149, 196, 222, 224, 262, 263, 416, 417

damaged 196, 225

developing 278

infected 147

screening assay ...261, 279-282, 284, 417

wounded 262

leaf

blight 283, 284

rust 283, 284

locally grown 127-129

lodged 417

malt 122

market 128

meal 119-122, 310, 312, 313

moldy 35, 110, 111, 120-122

movement 129

near isogenic 263

pathogen 146

plant 278

maize: polenta 176

pollen shed 281

processing 128, 131, 418

production 415

raw 310

resistant 416

roughage 96

samples 128, 178, 179, 415

screenings 31, 310

seed colonization 419

shortage 130

snack 90

source 129

staple diet 31

stem borer 416

storage 128, 149, 414, 415

stressed 416

subpericarp 262

susceptible 417

test cross 416

transgenic 35, 264

tropical 278

unprocessed 90, 91

weevil 416

white 361

makume 310

malabsorption syndrome 160, 161

malaise 352

Department of Agriculture 364

National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi 364-367

Malaysia 8, 338

male 304, 329

Kayes 214

protein 71

malt 379

Malta 80

malting 379

experimental 380

mammals 41, 70

mammary hypertrophy 110

management

action 356

agronomic 213

alternative 390

management

complementary 417

crisis 20

cultural 256

direct 289

effective 377

field 371, 374

integrated 210, 310

option 210, 408 417

procedure 289

recommended 329

requirement 351

science 19

system 369, 370

technology 215

technique 408

manganese (Mn) 305

manufacture 80, 81, 362

manure 212, 213, 419

access 354, 355, 356

agriculture 421

barrier 353, 403

common 96

consequences 351

contamination 352

demand 343, 361

distribution 128

domestic 9

entry 341

Europe 164, 231

external 34

foreign 344

global 60, 155, 336

high value 364

inspection 22

international 9, 67-69, 74, 394, 395

major 342

multiple 335, 341

open 392

opportunity 336, 342, 356

option 420

potential, lower 210

price 155

regional 11

rural 129, 361

self regulating 358

share 364

market: Switzerland 245

target 365

traditional 342

value 309

mass spectrometry See MS

material

infectious 372

biological 176

contaminated 180

ground solid 173

interference 172

liquid 180

maturity 259

Mauritania 338

mawè, fermented 418

maximum tolerated levels 29, 32-34, 123, 164

measure

emergency 79, 80

interim 80

protective 80

necessary 80

provisional 80

measurement

non-destructive 174

precise 175

quantitative 177

uncertainty 189

media 317, 319, 364

medical

establishment 329

examination 320-322

facilities, limited 127

personnel 329

medication 157

herbal 312

Mediterranean 133-136, 144, 246

basin 249

medium

acidic 267

alkaline 267

synthetic 250

melon 107

seeds 362

mepanipyrim 251

metabolite 155, 176, 262, 302, 413

activated 55

antitumor 268

conversion 163

hydroxylated 41, 56

metabolite: oxidative 303

primary 262, 268, 270

secondary... 160, 163, 219, 231, 268, 270, 309, 350, 417

carcinogenic 257

gene cluster 268

negative 267

production 267

profile 196

regulation 268

toxic 159, 359, 360

metaconazole 373

metals 269

heavy 303, 342

trace 303

methacrylic acid 180

methanol 173

method

accurate 171

analytical ... 81, 82, 93, 95, 171, 173, 176, 179, 181, 360, 368

chromatographic 171, 175, 178

cost effective 174

detection 6, 8

emerging 171, 173, 174

homogenization 136

official 174, 176, 177

robust 177

sensitivity 176, 179

simple 178

statistical 174, 178

validated 390-392

methylase 268

methylglyoxal 263

Otf-methylguanine 162

methyltransferase

arginine 268

histone 268

Mexico 17

microbial

activity 215

antagonist 213

biomass 378

contaminant 219

degradation 94

microcystins 109

Microdochium 371

var. nivale 197

micronutrient deficiency 53

microorganisms 165, 260

hazardous 302

resistant 155

milk... 4, 41, 56, 70, 72, 73, 83-85, 87, 92-95, 118, 156, 157, 163-165, 173, 176, 178, 185, 189, 190, 242, 287, 303, 360, 364, 396, 414, 418

consumable 92

contaminated 150

infant 189, 190

product 189, 190

production 157

raw 85

pearl 403, 407

milling .225, 240, 309, 310, 312-314, 375, 379, 380

flour 375

fraction 90, 91

maize 90, 91

minerals 166, 304, 305

analyzed 305

MIP See Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

MIR 174, 178

mitogen 162

mixture, complex 93

mode of action 156, 159

model 379

forecasting 143, 215

logistic 378

mathematical 378

prediction 215, 248

moisture ..91, 93, 96, 141, 236, 266, 370, 372, 374-378

content.. .71, 130, 144, 213, 223, 224, 372, 374, 376, 378, 418

grain 376

high 130, 147

level 374

safe 223

low 147

management 374

stress 213

mold See fungi molecularly imprinted polymer 174, 180

monetary loss 404

moniliformin 140, 142-144, 146, 148, 149,

monitoring

data 97

program 397, 399

monitoring: rapid 369

reliable 391

monoculture 370

monocyte 45, 161

human 45

phagocytoses 44

Monodera myristica 225

monoethylamine 226

monogastric 94

Morinda lucida 225

Morocco 133, 136, 245

morphology 196, 197, 267

morphotype 290, 291

multiple 290

mortality rate

maternal 12

under age five 12

Mozambique 118-121, 357, 359, 404, 415

MTLs See maximum tolerated levels mucilage 235

mucosal barrier 59

muscle 95

weakness 157

Mussidia nigrivenella 105, 222

mutation 162, 163, 165, 198

mycelium 210

mycoflora 234

steering committee 5

mycophenolic acid 176

Mycoplasma agalactiae 43, 47

mycosis, systemic 318

acute 278, 397

chronic 160

human 159

pulmonary.See Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome mycotoxin..ix, 3-9, 13, 20-25, 41, 42, 45-48, 53, 54, 58, 59, 67, 70-72, 74, 77, 79, 82-84, 86-88, 91, 94-97, 128, 133, 134, 136, 137, 139, 140, 142, 143, 145-149, 151, 155-157, 159-165, 171177, 179-181, 185-189, 192, 195, 201, 219, 220, 225-227, 258, 267, 277-279, 285, 301303, 309-314, 317, 318, 320-322, 327-331, 340, 349-355, 360, 369, 370, 375, 376, 388, 390-395, 397-399, 403-406, 408, 409, 413415, 419, 421

accumulation 139, 214, 278, 279, 284, 392

airborne 317, 318

mycotoxin: analysis 20, 22, 34, 172-174,

assay 140

assessment 413, 421

biosynthesis 155

pathway 198, 201

burden 156

co-occurrence 41

confirmation 176

conjugated 176

contamination . 4, 7, 8, 117, 133, 134, 136140, 151, 171, 185-187, 192, 214, 259, 278, 285, 309, 310, 312, 313, 349, 352355, 357, 359-362, 369-374, 391-394, 396, 398-400, 404, 419

content 214, 310, 312, 313, 391

control 371, 388, 395

danger 214

decontamination 311

degradation 35, 313, 419

deleterious effects 127

detection 171, 176, 389, 413, 421

development 373, 374

dietary 414

distribution 185, 238

exposure..20, 48, 137, 156, 163, 165, 321, 322, 349, 406

chronic 405

low-level 24

extraction 171

hazard 29, 390, 392

immunotoxic 41, 47

laboratory 362-364

legislation 391

level 156, 157, 163, 188, 191, 245, 252, 254, 278, 309, 313, 314, 377, 391, 394, 397, 399, 400, 406, 409, 418

masked 176

mixture 137, 155, 156

monitoring 359, 362, 379

multiple 151, 172, 174, 181

neglect 357

non-fluorescent 175

occurrence 156

outbreak 388

prevention 8, 138, 390, 394-396

Prevention Cluster 4, 5

problem 136, 349, 350, 353, 354

producer 321

product 140

mycotoxin: production 134, 139, 151, 155,

211, 260-262, 267-269, 370, 371, 373, 374, 390, 394, 398, 408, 414

stimulated 373

profile 141, 145, 151

recovery 175

reduction 20, 374, 379

regulated 189

regulations 23, 34, 70, 258, 360, 388

research 36, 48, 388

residue 314

sampling 189

screening 174

spectrum 390

stability 186

standard 33, 35, 404

suppression 48

surveillance 20, 111

synthesis...7,133,134,137,258,262,375,376

taskforce 21

template 180

test 173

testing 23, 113, 136

laboratory 74

World Forum 5, 8

myeloperoxidase 265

Myristica fragrans 85

Myrothecium 158

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