Table of Contents

Preface ix

Addresses of Contributors xi

Overview and Introduction 1

1. The EU MycoGlobe project: Global integration of mycotoxin and toxigenic fun gal research for enhanced food safety

2. IITA's research-for-development agenda for Africa

3. Priorities for mycotoxin research in Africa identified by using the Nominal Group

Discussion technique

R. Bandyopadhyay, J. F. Leslie & R. A. Frederiksen 19

Health and Trade Issues 27

4. Mycotoxins: A global problem

W. F. O. Marasas, W. C. A. Gelderblom, G. S. Shephard & H. F. Vismer 29

5. Modulation of the human immune system by aflatoxin

P. E. Jolly, Y. Jiang, W. O. Ellis, J. Sheng-Wang, E. Afriyie-Gyawu, T. D. Phillips & J. H. Williams 41

6. Aflatoxin exposure and impaired child growth in West Africa: An unexplored in ternational public health burden? Y. Y. Gong, P. C. Turner, A. J. Hall & C. P. Wild 53

7. Economic impact of aflatoxin contamination in Sub-Saharan Africa

O. Coulibaly, K. Hell, R. Bandyopadhyay, S. Hounkponou & J. F. Leslie 67

8. EU legislation on mycotoxins in food and feed: Overview of the decision-making process and recent and future developments F. Verstraete 77

Mycotoxin Contamination and Toxigenic Fungi in Africa and the

Mediterranean Basin 101

9. Mycotoxin contamination in foods in West and Central Africa

10. Mycotoxin contamination in food systems in Eastern and Southern Africa

11. The 2004 and 2005 aflatoxin tragedies in Kenya - A case study

12. Mycotoxin problems in nuts and dried fruits from the Mediterranean basin

13. Between emerging and historical problems: An overview of the main toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin concerns in Europe A. F. Logrieco & A. Moretti 139

14. The impact ofmycotoxins in animal feeds

J. Fink-Gremmels 155

Mycotoxin Detection Methods 169

15. Overview of detection methods for mycotoxins

16. Mycotoxin concentration data quality: The role of sampling

M. Miraglia, B. de Santis, E. Pannunzi, F. Debegnach & C. Brera 185

17. Development of quantitative detection methods for Fusarium in cereals and their application

C. Waalwijk, I. M. de Vries, J. Kohl, X. Xu, T. A. J. van der Lee & G. H. J. Kema .. 195

Mycotoxin Management 207

18. Pre- andpostharvest management of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts

F. Waliyar, P. L. Kumar, A. Traoré, B. R. Ntare, B. Diarra & O. Kodio 209

19. Pre- and postharvest management of aflatoxin in maize: An African perspective

K. Hell, P. Fandohan, R. Bandyopadhyay, S. Kiewnick, R. Sikora & P. J. Cotty ... 219

20. Management of ochratoxin A in the cocoa supply chain: A summary of work by the CAOBISCO/ECA/FCC working group on ochratoxin A M. Gilmour & M. Lindblom 231

21. Prevention of ochratoxin A in grapes and wine

P. Battilani 245

22. Molecular approaches to development of resistance to preharvest aflatoxin con tamination

D. Bhatnagar, K. Rajasekaran, J. W. Cary, R. Brown, J. Yu & T. E. Cleveland 257

23. Breeding maize for resistance to mycotoxins at IITA

A. Menkir, R. L. Brown, R. Bandyopadhyay, Z.-Y. Chen & T. E. Cleveland 277

24. Etiology and management of aflatoxin contamination

25. NovaSilâ„¢ clay for the management of dietary aflatoxins in human populations

E. Afriyie-Gyawu, J. H. Williams, H. J. Huebner, N.-A. Ankrah, D. Ofori-Adjei,

26. Food processing to reduce mycotoxins in Africa

27. Indoor airborne exposure to molds and mycotoxins

Institutional Issues in Mycotoxin Management 325

28. Are Ghanaians aware of the aflatoxin menace?

R. T. Awuah, K. O. Agyemang, S. C. Fialor & C. M. Jolly 327

29. Institutional aspects of sanitary andphytosanitary issues in ECOWAS trade

J. d'A. Hughes, R. Bandyopadhyay, K. Makinde & S. Olembo 335

30. Institutional stakeholders in mycotoxin issues - Past, present and future

31. Institutionalizing mycotoxin testing in Africa

F. Waliyar, M. Siambi, R. Jones, S. V. Reddy, D. Chibonga, P. L. Kumar &

32. Prevention strategies for trichothecenes and ochratoxin in cereals

International Programs on Mycotoxins 385

33. FAO program on mycotoxin management

M. Pineiro 387

34. Mycotoxin research in USAID's CRSP programs

35. CGIAR research-for-development program on mycotoxins

R. Ortiz, T. Ban, R. Bandyopadhyay, M. Banziger, D. Bergvinson, K. Hell, B. James, D. Jeffers, P. L. Kumar, A. Menkir, J. Murakami, S. N. Nigam, H. D. Upadhyaya & F. Waliyar 413

Index 423

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