Ethanol is an alternative fuel derived from biologically renewable resources and can be employed to replace octane enhancers such as methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene or oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) (Champagne, 2008). A potential source for low-cost ethanol production is the utilization of ligonocellulosic materials (e.g., crop residues, grass, livestock manure); however, the high cost of biethanol production using current technologies does not make this a feasible option. There has been considerable effort from various research groups to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic waste material using crop residues (Kim and Dale, 2004) and animal manure (Chen et al. 2003, 2004; Wen et al. 2004). For instance, a research group at Washington State University developed a process for hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials from cattle manure into fermentable sugars (Chen et al. 2003, 2004). According to the authors, when raw dairy manure was pretreated with 3% H2SO4 (at 110 oC) for an hour, hemicellulose was degraded to form arabinose, galactose and xylose, which were then treated with celluloytic enzymes to hydrolysze the cellulose. While these recent preliminary studies using agricultural wastes as lignocellulosic feedstock for ethanol production seem promising, more work is required to develop the technology on a larger scale. Nevertheless, this laboratory-based research will help develop an innovative waste management approach that uses agriculturally derived wastes as a renewable resource both for the extraction of value-added product, cellulose, and for its conversion to bioethanol (Champagne 2008).
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Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.