Toxic Effects of Plant Growth Regulators

Details of the effects of some representative PGRs on various species, including humans, are given in Table 15.1. If properly used, PGRs have an excellent safety record. However, if the wrong concentration is used, if safety equipment is not properly used, or if the application times are not correct, poisoning can occur in plants, animals, and humans. A good example is hydrogen cyanamide. This PGR is considered very effective and economical in assuring uniform bud break in crops including...

Electromagnetic Energy

Electromagnetic energy is carried at low frequencies in electrons. The energy supplied by electrons is determined by the voltage (the force acting to push electrons through a conductor) and the flow of electrons, known as current. Current flow is measured in amperes or milliamperes (mA). Common residential and industrial machinery uses alternating current, indicating that the flow of electrons alternates in direction, typically at a frequency of 60 cycles per second, or 60 hertz (Hz). A...