Broad Spectrum Approaches

These approaches include social skills training (called "charm school" by the participants), stress management, anger management, and community-based reinforcement such as education and job placement. Tattoo and scar removal is also an important facet of drug treatment as gang and drug-related tattoos serve to identify a drug user to other drug users and to alienate potential employers. Tattoo removal can serve to improve a former drug abuser's reentry into the workplace. As people detoxify from opiates, they often experience debilitating dental pain. The chances are high that they will return to opiate use unless the dental conditions are treated. Drug abusers may have other drug-related health problems such as infectious hepatitis, HIV, and skin infections. These problems require aggressive diagnosis and treatment. Finally, the dual diagnosis of drug addiction with psychiatric disease such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, or schizophrenia must be diagnosed and treated concomitantly using psychotherapy and pharmaceuticals during drug withdrawal (16-18).

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