Conclusion

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

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