Copperhead Envenomation

In a series covering over 40 years (1952 to 1992), with 64% copperhead bites, 7% cottonmouth bites, 3% rattlesnake bites, and 26% unidentified, no first aid measure significantly affected the outcome. Therefore, no first aid measures are recommended for pit viper bites due to copperheads and cotton-mouths except immobilization and elevation of the injured extremity (37).

Envenomation of copperheads tends to be less severe than either rattlesnake or water moccasin envenomation and usually requires only conservative local treatment without antivenin. In a retrospective review of copperhead bites, when FabAV was administered, 88% had cessation of the progression of local injury within 4 hours; there were some treatment failures (74,75).

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