Emergency Departments and Hospitals

Around the world, there is a vast range of availability, training, and equipment among hospitals and emergency departments. Using protocols and training in Basic Trauma Life Support and Advanced Trauma Life Support, the management of agriculture trauma has improved in many countries. Rapid intubation, fluid resuscitation, control of hypothermia, and control of bleeding are the hallmarks of trauma support in emergency departments. Precise and rapid diagnosis using radiographs is possible in most countries, but ultrasound machines, CT scanners, and MRI units are not available in many countries. In many locations, physicians must rely on their clinical judgment to diagnose and treat trauma patients (41,42).

Advanced surgical techniques in limb re-implantation, head injury surgery, spinal salvage, and microvascular surgery have improved the salvage rates for limbs, spinal, and head injuries. Any advanced surgical program requires advanced training for surgeons, nurses, and other personnel, adequate equipment and supplies, and proper facilities.

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