Also known as "farmer's lung" and "extrinsic allergic alveolitis", hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by exposures to specific fungi found in moldy hay, straw, and feed. In addition to moldy feed, exposure to moldy compost, wood chips, sugar cane (bagasse), composting in mushroom growing, and turkey farming can lead to HP. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is much less likely to occur in settings with organic dust exposure compared to ODTS. The overall prevalence of HP is variable and varies with climate.

Studies cite an incidence range from 2 to 3 cases per 10,000 farmers in Sweden, to 4.2 per 10,000 in Wisconsin, to 43.7 per 10,000 in France (45,71,72).

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