Extent of Trauma Injuries

The numbers of agriculture related injuries and deaths vary from country to country based upon several factors, including the type of work done in that country, preventive measures, the health and nutritional status of the workers, and the medical response to injuries. Tables 25.1 and 25.2 compare agricultural injury and death rates in several countries (1-5).

In many countries, the reporting system for agricultural injuries and deaths is incomplete due to apathy, lack of funds or facilities, or political factors. Many companies and countries don't want the precise numbers known in order to hide the need for preventive measures and safety controls. In Pakistan, for example, official apathy is such that the newspapers provide a more realistic measure of injury and death than does the public health system (16).

As discussed in detail in Chapter 12, children are at greater risk for agriculture injury and death, especially by trauma. Tables 25.3 and 25.4 show the injury and death rates among children in several countries, many of which have aggressive prevention and safety programs (17-20).

340 G. Letz and J.E. Lessenger Table 25.1. Extent of agricultural injuries.

Location California (2002) Iowa (2002)

Ontario, Canada (1995 to 1996) United States (1990 to 2000) United States (1992) India (one state) (2000) Australia (1989 to 1992) China (1997-1998) Denmark (1998) Ohio (1995)

Costs

US$51,764/ injury US$19 million/yr

$3.14 to $13.99 billion/yr $27 million/yr

8.2/100 workers/year 42/100 person/years

0.5 to 16.6/100 workers/year

1.23/1000 workers/year 20.6/100,000 workers/year 33% of the workforce/year 32% of full-time workers/year 5/100 person/years

Source: Data from McCurdy et al. (1), Rautiainen et al. (2), Locker et al. (3), Rautianinen and Reynolds (4), Leigh et al. (6), Tiwari et al. (7), Franklin et al. (8), Xiang et al. (9), Rasmussen et al. (10), and Crawford et al. (11).

Table 25.2. Trauma fatalities in adult agricultural workers.

Location

Rate / 100,000 workers

United States (2000)

22

India (2000)

22

United States (1989 to 1992)

3.2

New Zealand (1989 to 1992)

4.9

Australia (1989 to 1992)

3.8

United States (1992 to 1996)

2.1

Canada (1991 to 1995)

1.6

Alaska commercial fishing (1991-1992)

200

Source: Data Rautianinen and Reynolds (4), Mag and Nag (12), Feyer et al. (13), Adekoya and

Myers (14), and Pickett et al. (15).

Table 25.3. Extent of agricultural injuries in youth.

Location

Rate

Kentucky (1994 to 1995)

2.8/100

California (1998)

3.8/100

Minnesota (2000)

1,683/100,000

United States (1990 to 1993)

1717/100,000 farm residents

Source: Data Browning et al. (17), McCurdy and Carroll (18), Gerberich et al. (19), and

Rivara (20).

Table 25.4. Extent of agriculture trauma fatalities in U.S. youth.

Time period

Rate /100,000 persons in age groups

1979 to 1981

9.3/100,000

1990 to 1993

8/100,000

Source: Data from Goldcamp et al. (21) and Lilley et al. (22).

Source: Data from Goldcamp et al. (21) and Lilley et al. (22).

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