The liquids in which pesticides are dissolved and the solids on which they are adsorbed are chosen by the manufacturers to make handling and application easy and to achieve maximal stability and effectiveness of the active ingredient. The most commonly used solvents are petroleum distillates. The petroleum distillate may produce toxicities in itself in large-volume ingestions. Most adjuvants (emulsifiers, penetrants, and safeners) are potentially skin and eye irritants but with very low or no systemic toxicity.
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