Neurotoxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds

Organophosphate compounds such as diazinon, disulfoton, azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, and fonofos are used widely in agriculture. Some have been phased out in the United States but remain in active use in other countries. Other agents with similar action include toxic nerve gases that have gained significant publicity as potential chemical warfare and terrorism agents (Sarin). Carbamate compounds also have been developed as pesticides and are associated with less toxic effects in humans. Currently, agricultural exposure is the most common epidemiological site of organophosphate poisoning, and any worker in the industry can be affected, including manufacturers, field workers, truckers who transport pesticides or produce, and crop dusters (45).

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