1. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. The reptile and amphibian communities in the United States. USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services. January 2001.

2. Kelsey J, Ehrlich M, Henderson SO. Exotic reptile bites. Amer J Emerg Med 1997;15(5):536-7.

3. Eidson M, Bender JB, Currier RW, et al. Compendium of measures to prevent disease and injury associated with animals in public settings, 2003. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians.

4. Davidson TM, Schafer SF, Jones J. North American pit vipers. J Wilderness Med 1992;3:397-421.

5. Warrell DA. Venomous bites and stings in the tropical world. Med J Australia 1993;159(11-12):773-9.

6. White J. Bites and stings from venomous animals: A global overview. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2000;22(1):65-8.

7. Iyaniwura TT. Snake venom constituents: Biochemistry and toxicology (part 1). Vet Human Toxicol 1991;33(5):468-74.

8. Jasper EH, Miller M, Neuburger KJ, et al. Venomous snakebites in an urban area: What are the possibilities? Wilderness Environ Med 2000;11(3):168-71.

9. Kunkel DB, Curry SC, Vance MV, et al. Reptile envenomations. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1983-1984;21(4,5):503-26.

10. Langley RL. Fatal animal attacks in North Carolina over an 18-year period. Amer J Forensic Med Path 1994;15(2):160-167.

11. Parrish HM. Analysis of 460 fatalities from venomous animals in the United States. Am J Med Sci. 1963;245:129-141.

12. Meier J, Stocker K. Effects of snake venoms on hemostasis. Critical Rev Toxicol. 1991;21:171-182.

13. Cruz NA, Alvarez RG. Rattlesnake bite complications in 19 children. Pediatr Emerg Care 1994;10(1):30-33.

14. Watt G, Padre L, Tuazon ML, et al. Bites by the Philippine cobra (Naja naja philippinensis): an important cause of death among rice farmers. Amer J Tropical Med Hygiene 1987;37(3):636-639.

15. Rojas G, Bogarin G, Gutierrez JM. Snakebite mortality in Costa Rica. Toxicon 1997;35(11):1639-43.

16. Kumar P. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture. Industrial Health 2004;42:149-62.

17. Dumavibhat B. A study of epidemiology, risk factors and preventive measures against snake bites. J Med Assoc Thailand 1997;80(9):547-56.

18. Praba-Egge AD, Cone SW, Araim O, et al. Snakebites in the rainforests of Ecuador. World J Surg 2003;27(2):234-40.

19. Langley R. Physical hazards of animal handlers. Occup Med 1999;14(2):181-94.

20. Langley RL, Morrow WE. Deaths resulting from animal attacks in the United States. Wilderness Environ Med 1997;8:8-16.

21. Curry SC, Kunkel DB. Death from a rattlesnake bite. Am J Emerg Med 1985;3(3):227-35.

22. Dart RC, Seifert SA, Boyer LV, et al. A randomized multicenter trial of Crotali-nae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom for the treatment for crotaline snakebite in the United States. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(16):2030-6.

23. Kitchens CS. Hemostatic aspects of envenomation by North American snakes. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1992;6(5):1189-95.

24. Morandi N, Williams J. Snakebite injuries: Contributing factors and intentional-ity of exposure. Wilderness Environ Med 1997;8(3):152-5.

25. Parrish HM. Incidence of treated snakebites. US Public Health Rep 1966;81: 269-76.

26. Russell FE, Carlson RW, Wainschel J, et al. Snake venom poisoning in the United States: experience with 550 cases. JAMA 1975;233:341-4.

27. Wingert WA. Poisoning by animal venoms. Top Emerg Med 1980;2(3):89-118.

28. Wingert WA, Chan L. Rattlesnake bites in southern California and rationale for recommended treatment. West J Med 1988;148:37-44.

29. Watson WA, Litovitz TL, Rodgers GC Jr, et al. 2002 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21(5):353-421.

30. Bey TA, Boyer L, Walter FG, et al. Exotic snakebite: Envenomation by an African puff adder. J Emerg Med 1997;15:827-31.

31. Clement JE, Pietrusko RG. Pit viper snakebite envenomation in the United States. Clin Toxicol 1979;14(5):515-38.

32. McCollough NC, Gennaro JF. Evaluation of venomous snake-bite in the southern United States from parallel clinical and laboratory investigations. J Florida Med Assoc 1963;49:959-67.

33. Norris RL, Dart RC. Apparent coral snake envenomation in a patient without visible fang marks. Am J Emerg Med 1989;7:402-5.

34. Suchard JR, LoVecchio F. Envenomations by rattlesnakes thought to be dead. N Engl J Med 1999;340(24):1930.

35. Kitchens CS, Van Mierop LHS. Envenomation by the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius fulvius): A study of 39 victims. JAMA 1987;258(12):1615-8.

36. Iyaniwura TT. Snake venom constituents: Biochemistry and toxicology (part 2). Vet Human Toxicol 1991;33(5):475-80.

37. Lawrence WT, Giannopoulos A, Hansen A. Pit viper bites: Rational management in locales which copperheads and cottonmouths predominate. Ann Plast Surg 1996;36:276-85.

38. Scharman EJ, Noffsinger VD. Copperhead snakebites: Clinical severity of local effects. Annals Emerg Med 2001;38(1):55-61.

39. Davidson TM. Intravenous rattlesnake envenomation. West J Med 1988;148:45-7.

40. Schaeffer RC, Pattabhiraman TR, Carlson RW, et al. Cardiovascular failure produced by a peptide from the venom of the Southern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis helleri. Toxicon 1979;17:447-53.

41. Ownby CL, Kainer RA, Tu AT. Pathogenesis of hemorrhage induced by rattlesnake venom. Am J Pathol 1974;76(2):401-8.

42. Hasiba U, Rosenbach L, Rockwell D, et al. DIC-like syndrome after envenomation by the snake, Crotalus horridus horridus. N Engl J Med 1975;292(10): 505-7.

43. Tanen DA, Ruha AM, Graeme KA, et al. Epidemiology and hospital course of rattlesnake envenomations cared for at a tertiary referral center in central Arizona. Academic Emerg Med 2001;8(2):177-82.

44. Riffer E, Curry SC, Gerkin R. Successful treatment with antivenin of marked thrombocytopenia without significant coagulopathy following rattlesnake bite. Ann Emerg Med 1987;16:1297-9.

45. Bond GR, Burkhart KK. Thrombocytopenia following timber rattlesnake envenomation. Ann Emerg Med 1997;30:40-4.

46. Offerman SR, Barry JD, Schneir A, et al. Biphasic rattlesnake venom-induced thrombocytopenia. J Emerg Med 2003;24(3):289-93.

47. Brick JF, Gutmann L. Rattlesnake venom-induced myokymia. Muscle Nerve 1982;5(suppl):98-100.

48. Bush SP, Siedenburg E. Neurotoxicity associated with suspected Southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) envenomation. Wilderness Environ Med 1999;10(4):247-49.

49. Corrigan JJ, Jeter MA. Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) venom: In vitro effect on platelets, fibrinolysis, and fibrinogen clotting. Vet Hum Toxicol 1990;32(5):439-41.

50. Glenn JL, Straight RC, Wolfe MC, et al. Geographic variation in Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) venom properties. Toxicon 1983;21(1):119.

51. Jansen PW, Perkin RM, Van Stralen D. Mojave rattlesnake envenomation: Prolonged neurotoxicity and rhabdomyolysis. Ann Emerg Med 1992;21(3):322-5.

52. Gopalakrishnakone P, Hawgood BJ, Holbrooke SE, et al. Sites of action of Mojave toxin isolated from the venom of the Mojave rattlesnake. Br J Pharmac 1980;69:421-31.

53. Farstad D, Thomas T, Chow T, et al. Mojave rattlesnake envenomation in southern California: A review of suspected cases. Wilderness Environ Med 1997;8(2):89-93.

54. Nordt SP. Anaphylactoid reaction to rattlesnake envenomation. Veterinary Human Tox 2000;42(1):12.

55. Ryan KC, Caravati EM. Life-threatening anaphylaxis following envenomation by two different species of Crotalidae. J Wilderness Med 1994;5:263-8.

56. Tanen DA, Ruha AM, Graeme KA, et al. Rattlesnake envenomations: unusual case presentations. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(3):474-9.

57. Curry SC, Kraner JC, Kunkel DB, et al. Noninvasive management of rattlesnake envenomations to extremities. Ann Emerg Med 1985;14(11):1081-4.

58. Cowan DJ, Wright T, Cowan JA. Long-term complications of snake bites to the upper extremity. J Southern Ortho Assoc 1998;7(3):205-11.

59. Keyler DE, Vandevoort JT. Copperhead envenomations: Clinical profiles of three different subspecies. Vet Human Toxicol 1999;41(3):149-52.

60. Thorson A, Lavonas EJ, Rouse AM, et al. Copperhead envenomations in the Carolinas. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003;41(1):29-35.

61. Burch JM, Agarwal R, Mattox KL, et al. The treatment of crotalid envenoma-tion without antivenin. J Trauma. 1988;28(1):35-43.

62. Spiller HA, Bosse GM. Prospective study of morbidity associated with snakebite envenomation. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003;41(2):125-30.

63. Gold BS, Pyle P. Successful treatment of neurotoxic king cobra envenomation in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Ann Emerg Med 1998;32(6):736-8.

64. Tokish JT, Benjamin J, Walter F. Crotalid envenomation: The southern Arizona experience. J Ortho Trauma 2001;15(1):5-9.

65. Hurlbut KM, Dart RC, Spaite D. Reliability of clinical presentation for predicting significant pit viper envenomation. Ann Emerg Med 1988;17(4):438-9.

66. LoVecchio F, Klemens J, Welch S, et al. Antibiotics after rattlesnake envenomation. J Emerg Med 2002;23(4):327-8.

67. Clark RF, McKinney PE, Chase PB, et al. Immediate and delayed allergic reactions to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom. Annals Emerg Med. 2002;39(6):671-6.

68. CroFab, Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab Ovine. Nashville, TN: Protherics, Inc., 2000. [package insert]

69. Bebarta V, Dart RC. Effectiveness of delayed use of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004;42(3):321-4.

70. Gold BS, Dart RC, Barish RA. Bites of venomous snakes. N Engl J Med 2002;347(5):347-56.

71. Bush SP, Green SM, Moynihan JA, et al. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is efficacious for envenomations by Southern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus helleri). Ann Emerg Med 2002;40(6):619-24.

72. Boyer LV, Seifert SA, Clark RF, et al. Recurrent and persistent coagulopathy following pit viper envenomation. Arch of Intern Med. 1999;159(7):706-10.

73. Ruha AM, Curry SC, Beuhler M, et al. Initial postmarketing experience with crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab for treatment of rattlesnake envenomation. Annals Emerg Med 2002;39(6):609-15.

74. Whitley RE. Conservative treatment of copperhead snakebites without antivenin. J Trauma 1996;41:219-21.

75. Lavonas EJ, Gerardo CJ, O'Malley G, et al. Initial experience with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom in the treatment of copperhead snakebite. Ann Emerg Med 2004;43(2):207-8.

76. Juckett G, Hancox JG. Venomous snakebites in the United States: Management review and update. Am Family Physician 2002;65(7):1367-74.

77. Britt A, Burkhart KK. Naja naja cobra bite. Am J Emerg Med 1997;15:529-31.

78. Gold BS, Barish RA, Dart RC, et al. Resolution of compartment syndrome after rattlesnake envenomation utilizing non-invasive measures. J Emerg Med 2003;24(3):285-8.

79. Stewart RM, Page CP, Schwesinger WH, et al. Antivenin and fasciotomy/ debridement in the treatment of severe rattlesnake bite. Am J Surg 1989;158:543-7.

80. Flandry R, Lisecki EJ, Domingue GJ, et al. Initial antibiotic therapy for alligator bites: Characterization of the oral flora of Alligator mississippiensis. Southern Med J 1989;82(2):262-6.

81. Burgess GH, Callahan MT, Howard RJ. Sharks, alligators, barracudas, and other biting animals in Florida waters. J Florida Med Assoc. 1997;84(7):428-32.

82. Howard RJ, Burgess GH. Surgical hazards posed by marine and freshwater animals in Florida. Amer J Surgery 1993;166(5):563-7.

83. Raynor AC, Bingham HG, Caffee HH, Dell P. Alligator bites and related infections. J Florida Med Assoc 1983;70(2):107-10.

84. Kelsey J, Ehrlich M, Henderson SO. Exotic reptile bites. Am J Emerg Med 1997;15(5):536-7.

85. Hooker KR, Caravati EM. Gila monster envenomation. Annals Emerg Med 1994;24(4):731-5.

86. Stahnke HL, Heffron WA, Lewis DL. Bite of the Gila monster. Rocky Mt Med J 1970;67:25-30.

87. Strimple PD, Tomassoni AJ, Otten EJ, Bahner D. Report on envenomation by a Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a discussion of venom apparatus, clinical findings, and treatment. Wilderness Environ Med. 1997;8(2):111-6.

0 0

Post a comment