Urea [(NH2)2 CO] is a solid nitrogen product typically applied to crops in granular form. It can also be combined with ammonium nitrate and dissolved in water to make liquid nitrogen fertilizer. Urea can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion. Urea's evaporation point at 20° C is negligible. A nuisance-causing concentration of airborne particles can be reached quickly if urea is powdered (11,12).

Urea irritates the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Urea inhalation produces cough, shortness of breath, and sore throat. Exposure to skin or eye evokes redness. Ingestion may produce convulsions, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. To prevent such effects, rinse and wash skin with water and soap and rinse the eyes with plenty of water. In case of ingestion, allow the patient to drink plenty of water to dilute the urea (12,13).

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