Allergic Reactions Ebook

Allergy Relief

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Prevalence Of Food Allergy And Characteristics of Food Allergens

Food allergies represent an important medical condition that ranges in severity from mild skin and intestinal irritation to anaphylactic shock that can result in death. Food allergies may be present in up to 2 of adults and 8 of children, with surveyed results of perceived allergic reactions being as high as 22 for the population.1 The vast majority of foods allergens are proteins and, as a whole, are represented by more than 1500 reported amino acid sequences, with more sequences being characterized for their allergenicity every year.2 The eight most commonly reported allergic reactions are to peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, fish, Crustacea, wheat, and soybeans.3 Moreover, adverse reactions to plant-derived foods are very common in birch pollen allergic subjects.4 Typical birch pollen-related food allergies include apple, stone fruit such as peach, apricot and cherry, hazelnut, carrot, celery, and soybeans. Although the majority of observed reactions to those foods are...

Potential New Methods For Allergy Assessment 831 Animal Models

Due to the ethical concerns around performing challenge studies of potential food allergens in humans, animal models have been an attractive alternative for creating a standardized allergen exposure protocol in an easily available animal. The characterization and testing for sensitization to proteins is impossible to achieve in humans. Because of the challenges in working with humans in controlled studies, the goal of the animal model has been to predict whether a novel protein has the capacity to elicit IgE production in the animal and have some level of relevance to the human condition. Several models of allergen exposure have been attempted in multiple species, with each species having advantages over others. The rodent models offer the advantage of ease of handling, availability, and genetic stability. Rodents can be compared for their response to a variety of exposure sites40 and, due to the importance of genetic background, several different strains can be assessed for the...

Current Allergy Assessment Process

Because potential allergens cannot at present be accurately identified based on a single characteristic, the allergy assessment testing strategy, as originally proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 and further modified by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO WHO) and the U.S. Codex Office, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Codex) scientific panels,1518 recommends that all proteins introduced into crops be assessed for their similarity to a variety of structural and biochemical characteristics of known allergens. Since the primary method of disease management for food-allergic people is avoidance, a core principle of these recommended strategies is to experimentally determine whether candidate proteins for genetic engineering into foods represent potential food allergens. A multilevel, weight-of-evidence approach to the allergy assessment of foods derived from...

Potential Occupational Risk

Given that approximately 75 of asthma cases are triggered by allergens, the potential allergenicity of Bt is important to investigate further. A study by Bernstein et al. (83) measured immune responses in seasonal migrant farm workers exposed to Bt pesticides in the muck crops region of Northern Ohio in the United States in October 1995. This study included questionnaires, nasal and mouth lavages, ventilatory function assessment, and skin tests to From a consumer standpoint, concerns have been raised about the aller-genic potential of GM foods. For example, the CDC investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after Starlink, a corn variety modified to produce a Bt endotoxin, Cry9C, was allowed for animal feed and was found in the human food supply. However, allergic reactions were apparently not confirmed. More research is needed to better comprehend the health effects of Bt and other biological sources such as novel proteins found in genetically...

Food safety and human health

There are several areas of public concern with regard to potential human health risks of GM foods. These relate to understanding the potential of proteins and or other molecules in GM foods to cause allergic reactions, to act as toxins or carcinogens and or to cause food-intolerance reactions among the population. Methods of testing and evaluating these types of risks have been established for food and these are being applied to GM foods so as to detect any increased risks associated with particular foods (Lehrer, 2000). For example, any protein added to a food should be assessed for its potential allergenicity, whether it is added by genetic engineering or by manufacturing processes (Lehrer, 2000). Allergenicity can be raised in foods either by raising the level of a naturally occurring allergen (e.g. in groundnuts) or by introducing a new allergen. More than 90 of the food allergens that occur in 2 of adults and 4-6 of children are associated with eight food groups....

Safety Of Bacillus Thuringiensis Insecticides

From the standpoint of safety, however, the most important question is whether the Cry proteins produced in Bt crops are substantially equivalent to those produced in Bt or E. coli that are used for safety testing. The answer, as far as is known, is Yes. Regardless of the mass of the protein produced in the plant, if the amino acid sequence of the activated toxin is the same as that of the test material produced in alternate host there is no reason to expect that the plant-produced proteins will act differently or pose significant, unintended risks to nontarget organisms. There is always the possibility that the plant could modify the protein during or after translation, and this might make the protein not substantially equivalent. But there is no evidence this happens, or if it does, that a protein becomes more toxic, or, for example, allergenic as a result of such modifications. It must also be realized that such modifications, if they do occur, could decrease insecticidal activity,...

Assessing Food Safety

Genetic engineering need not make a food inherently different from its conventional counterpart. The technology itself is unlikely to increase the food's probability of containing an allergen. Concern about food allergies, however, is frequently cited as a major consumer issue with GM foods. Fortunately, much is known about foods that trigger allergic reactions for example, 90 of all food allergies in the United States are caused by a very small number of foods cow's milk, eggs, fish and shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts, and legumes. (Initially there was some concern that virus proteins expressed in virus-resistant GM crops might trigger allergic reactions if included in food. This concern has largely been abandoned since many foods are infected with one or more plant viruses, and viral proteins have been consumed thousands of years without deleterious effects.) Even genes from sources not known to be allergenic are subjected to detailed allergenicity screens. The level of the new...

Collection of Food Safety Data

Gathering food- and feed-safety data is an expensive process. For this reason, developers collect data according to the stage of product development. During the laboratory research stage, if the inserted gene(s) comes from a source known to contain allergens and the GMO under development is intended for the food or feed industry, it is prudent for developers to check the introduced proteins for allergenicity or toxicity. Preliminary food- safety checks usually involve comparisons of the cloned gene with the DNA and amino acid sequences of known allergens and toxins and, if indicated, the protein may be subject to clinical testing. If the protein is found to be potentially allergenic or to have unacceptable toxic properties, further development of the GMO may voluntarily be halted. Otherwise, good laboratory practice simply requires that experimental GMOs be neither eaten nor allowed to enter any food chain. Field trials give the first clear indication of how GMOs perform in the...

Overall Assessment of Bt Insecticide safety to Humans

Numerous reports over the years, many cited above, have suggested that Bt strains used in commercial insecticides were the cause of either a few rare cases of human infection, food poisoning, or allergic reactions. Analysis of the data in these studies, however, reveals no substantive evidence that Bt strains originating from commercial bacterial insecticides ever caused disease in humans, and certainly there is no evidence that these strains caused any kind of significant infection or outbreaks of food poisoning. Thus, Bt insecticides must be considered among the safest, if not the safest, ever developed for humans and most nontarget organisms.

Irritant Contact Dermatitis

Clinical forms of occupational Irritant contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis Chemical skin burns Allergic contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Acute and chronic urticaria Latex allergy Photodermatitis Phototoxic Photoallergic Follicular and acneiform dermatoses Pigmentation disturbance Hyperpigmentation Hypopigmentation Neoplasms Feature Irritant reaction Allergic reaction Feature Irritant reaction Allergic reaction

Present State Of Biotechnology Applications To Agriculture

In assessing the safety of transgenics (or more generally, GMOs), it should be considered that their reproductive and agronomical behavior will be similar, if not equal to the behavior of the nonmodified species that was used to produce the transgenics, save for the added gene. Biosafety evaluations to date appear effective To the present there appears to be no single case of documented environmental damage or of even an allergy reported as being due to their usage.

Improved nutritional and medicinal quality

With 800 million malnourished people in developing countries, malnutrition can be addressed with nutritional genomics that use metabolic engineering to manipulate plant micronutrients for human health (DellaPenna, 1999 Tian and DellaPenna, 2001 Lucca, Hurrell, and Potrykus, 2002 Mackey, 2002). Although the production of the so-called functional foods may initially focus on wealthy consumers in the developed world, genes can be engineered into crops cultivated and consumed by poor farmers to improve their dietary requirements. Efforts are also being made to enhance nutritional values and or reduced toxic or allergenic properties in food. These may be especially beneficial to poor farmers and people who do not have a balanced diet composed of diverse food sources. The example of GM rice with enhanced beta-carotene and iron is just the beginning of efforts of what has been coined nutraceuticals. This would benefit people whether rich or poor in developed or developing countries. Indeed,...

Pathophysiology and Genetics

Plant-borne asthma and respiratory tract allergies are by definition caused by inhalation of the allergen. However, some allergens such as pollens can cause rhinitis after exposure through the conjunctiva of the eye severe rhinitis can lead to conjunctivitis. Rhinoconjunctivitis is a common indicator of an allergy that is usually IgE-mediated, involving irritation and inflammation of the mucosa, with increased interleukens identified in nasal discharge. Ragweed (and all hayfever) allergies are activated by Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Asthma symptoms that are due to plant-borne disease are also IgE-mediated and identified by the sine qua non symptoms wheezing and shortness of breath typical of any type of asthma. Both plant-borne asthma and allergic rhinitis are stimulated by organic dusts, pollen, or plant particles (8). For both allergies and asthma there is a significant hereditary component, with a stronger affect on homozygotic than heterozygotic twins. Genetic variations...

Prevention and Management

The preferred treatment for workers with occupational asthma would be to remove them from the exposure causing asthma, but this may not necessarily be reasonable for economic reasons. Depending on a farmer's assets or the ability and willingness of a company to invest in their workers, respirators are likely to decrease asthma and allergies from any plant-borne antigens. Simple commercial or industrial dust masks can also be used as an inexpensive alternative to respirators, however they are not highly effective. Several studies have noted that growing up on a farm is associated with a decreased risk of asthma and allergies related to plant-borne diseases, particularly when exposed to farm stables and unpasteurized milk (15,16).

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Thermopoilic actinomycetes, Cryptostroma, Graphium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Pullularia are all fungal genera that produce spores capable of causing agricultural occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis as well as the less severe allergic reactions. The most common cause of myco-toxin hypersensitivity pneumonitis is probably T. actinomycetes, which grows readily in decaying vegetation, such as hay or silage (especially when vegetation appears moldy). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is described in detail in Chapter 19 (17-20).

Plants Causing Dermatitis

Although pollen from Compositae family, Ambrosia genus, like ragweed is well known to induce rhinitis, skin contact is required for dermatitis (with the exception of feverfew which can cause dermatitis by pollen or plant material). The common members of this family causing dermatitis include short, low, or common ragweed and Roman wormwood (A. artmisiaefolia) (the most ubiquitous, and a high sensitizer), western ragweed (A. coronopifolia), great, tall, or high ragweed (A. aptera), lance-leaved ragweed (A. bidentata), false ragweed (A. acanthicarpa), or Hooker's gaertneria (Franseria acanthicarpa). Dermatitis caused by ragweed can be seen throughout the growing season (spring through fall). It causes a widespread sensitivity reaction on exposed skin surfaces, mimicking photodermatitis. The allergen can be contacted directly from the plant, fomites, or airborne (most common). Other plants within this highly allergenic family include lichens (symbiotic algae and fungi) that are usually...

Epidemiology and Geography

Ragweed, the most important allergenic plant in the Ambrosia genus and Compositae family, is found naturally in North America but also in Australia, Europe (occasionally), and India. Feverfew or carrotweed (Parthe-nium hysterophorus) is native to the southern United States but is called the scourge of India as it caused an epidemic of AACD in India. Liverwort (Frulania) thrives in humid climates, including the Pacific Northwest, tropics, and subtropics (34,38,41,43).

General Considerations And Principles

The objective of the dietary intake assessment must be clearly identified before the appropriate input data may be selected. For example, will the results of the evaluation be used to determine whether consumers have adequate protein intakes, or will it be used to determine whether too much of a protein is being consumed Will it be used to evaluate the potential for allergic reactions or for other types of endpoints Is the frequency of intake of the protein of relevance How do the levels of the protein to be evaluated compare to the total protein in the diet

Safety screening for candidate proteins during the product development phase

To prevent potentially hazardous proteins from advancing into the final product development phase, candidate proteins are evaluated for their potential allergenic-ity and toxicity at an early stage in the time line of developing genetically modified plants. This early evaluation includes a comparison of the amino acid sequence of a candidate protein to known toxins, allergens, and all known proteins in publicly available databases, as well as an evaluation of the sensitivity of the protein to digestion with pepsin in a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay. The underlying assumption is that proteins that are not related to any potentially harmful proteins, e.g., toxins and allergens, and that are related to proteins with a history of safe consumption and or are readily digestible with pepsin in SGF are highly unlikely to pose a health risk. On the other hand, a high level of similarity of the candidate protein to known allergens or toxins, together with resistance to digestion with...

Coral Snake Envenomation

Eastern coral snake envenomation requires antivenin (Micrurus fulvius). It is derived from horses, and can cause allergic reactions immediately in someone with previous sensitization, or later cause serum sickness. The Arizona coral snake (Micruroides) is not associated with human fatality and has no specific antivenin (76).

Absorption of proteins from the gi tract

Similar results were reported for other protein allergens that are also stable to digestion, such as the soybean allergen Gly m Bd 30 k, where only approximately 0.004 of a large bolus dose was absorbed.18 There are also human studies reporting very low blood levels (generally less than 0.0001 of ingested protein) of stable food proteins such as ovalbumin, ovomucoid, and P-lactoglobulin after consumption of foods containing these proteins.19-21 These proteins are all highly abundant allergenic proteins in foods that are comparatively stable to digestion.16 For proteins that are not stable to digestion, the potential for systemic absorption of intact protein would be expected to be orders of magnitude lower than the very low levels of absorption for stable proteins alluded to earlier. This general lack of systemic bioavailability from the GI tract for intact proteins would minimize any potential for toxicity compared with single low-molecular-weight chemical substances following oral...

Plants Causing Asthma andor Rhinitis

Various types of pollens are well known to be associated with allergies and asthma. Agricultural practices, particularly harvesting and moving long-term storage grains, increase the dissemination of these various types of particles and pollens and the incidence of these allergic reactions. The pollen of members of the Ambrosia genus of the Compositae family, such as ragweed, are perhaps the best known cause of allergic rhinitis. Several agricultural plant species have crossreactive proteins with group I, IV, and IX allergens, and thus it is highly likely that a worker would be allergic to all of them. The cross reactive crops are barley, corn, rye, triticale, oats, canola, and sunflower pollens. These allergies, along with ragweed, are often given the nonspecific name of hay fever (4,5).

The Safety of Microbial Enzymes Used in Food Processing

It is important to recognize that enzymes likely to be used in foods (carbohy-drases, lipases, proteases) are already present in the human digestive tract in far larger amounts than one would typically encounter in a processed food. This natural enzyme background consists of enzymes that are synthesized endogenously and secreted into the gut enzymes synthesized by microbes that inhabit the gut and enzymes that occur naturally in the foods we eat, particularly uncooked foods. There are, of course, a few rare enzymes with known toxic properties (for example, toxic enzymes found in venom or associated with microbial pathogens such as Coryne-bacterium diphtheriae) but these would never be considered for food processing use because, among other things, they would serve no useful purpose in functionally modifying any component in a food matrix. In addition, although allergies to certain food proteins are a serious matter for some individuals, it is worth noting that there is no documented...

In Vitro Digestibility Assays

The evaluation of food protein allergens in the SGF test is considered an important aspect of determining protein stability and ability to retain allergenic structure during gut passage.17 As proteins have been introduced into GM crops, there has been interest in describing the stability of the proteins when processed as a food. Attempts to correlate stability of peptide fragments from food allergens with their allergenic potency became prominent as the first GM crop foods came to market in the mid-1990s.32 However, there can be variations in the measured stability of proteins observed in SGF test results due to different techniques, changes in pH, enzyme concentration, protein purity, and matrix.28,35 Although they are generally understood to be standard tests, digestion assays show only a limited feature of the biophysical properties important for a food protein to act as an allergen. Conclusions as to the presence of stable fragments after in vitro digestion remain a function of...

Safety And Quality Control Of Microbial Protein Products

Although experience shows that the standard levels fit well below these limits. In products of fungal origin, chemical analysis of absence of mycotoxins is considered essential (Scrimshaw 1985 Stringer 1985). (3) Pathogenicity. The potential pathogenicity of a microorganism used for feeding, has been evaluated by the injection of the viable organism into the body cavity or body fluids of a mammalian species. In this way the nonpathogenicity of a large number of microorganisms (S. cerevisiae, C. utilis C. maltosa, C. lipolytica, and Torulopsis) has been evaluated (Stringer 1985). (4) Integrity of the original strain. The maintenance of the integrity of the original strain and absence of undesirable contaminants has to be proved by specific microbiological and biochemical tests (Anonymous 1983c). (5) Continuous monitoring and control of process variables. To ensure quality and uniformity of the product the process variables (temperature, pH, aeration, cell concentration) have to be...

Epidemiology of Human Populations Exposed to Aerial Bt Sprays

In January, 2002, another Bt (Foray 48B) spray program was initiated in the Auckland area of New Zealand to control the painted apple moth (Teia anartoides), a serious invasive pest of many tree species. A group of 181 volunteers self-reported any changes in how they viewed certain aspects of their health before and after the spray program was initiated.87 Following spraying, many respondents reported increases in various health criteria, such as diarrhea, irritated throat and itchy nose, and stomach problems. However, most residents reported no health problems and, importantly, there were no relevant increases in visits to various health care providers. This study should be considered flawed because it used only a self-reporting group that lacked appropriate controls, and included many individuals with self-identified health problems such as hay fever, asthma, and other allergies. The authors of this study also made the mistake of associating the occurrence of Bt spores with...

Case studies of public or nonprofit agricultural innovation blocked by domestic IPRs

The examples discussed are few and anecdotal. They are also rather old new non-profit attempts at bringing new biotechnology applications to the farmers are hard to find, at least in part because of IP problems. But in recent conversation, scientists who have experience with start-ups and public sector development in this area generally strongly support the view that IPR thickets, along with testing costs to meet registration and regulatory requirements, are two serious impediments to development of transgenic cultivars for agriculture and horticulture in the USA, for all but the most lucrative markets. At present, there is more optimism with respect to genetic engineering for health-related markets. But at the University of California, Berkeley, problems with freedom to operate in 2003 played a part in the failure to commercialize transgenic wheat lines that were shown to be less allergenic in an animal model.14 Never the less in the lead countries, at current regulatory costs,...

Overview of Hazards for Those Working in Agriculture

Key words job task, hazards, injury, illness, allergy, stress reproductive events (4,8) Burns, respiratory damage Allergies, other respiratory Allergies, other respiratory disease Allergy, dermatitis The increased use of high-density animal confinement buildings increases risk for several of the zoonoses and also elevates the risk for other toxic exposures and allergic conditions. Both animal and crop-related organic material cause a wide spectrum of allergic conditions. The division of allergic cause by either plant or animal becomes somewhat arbitrary, as grain dust contains insect parts, animal dander, and feces, while feeds and bedding material from plant sources may cause allergies in animal handlers. Molds and bacteria in the farm environment also can be allergenic, especially in the high levels encountered in grain or animal confinement enclosed settings (7,10).

In Vitro Basophil Activation Assays

In vivo basophil stimulation and release of the inflammatory compound, histamine, is a primary mediator of immediate-type hypersensitivity allergic reactions.48 Assay methods for measuring the release of histamine in vitro have been available for many years and have been implemented in several clinical studies with the promise of a rapid, specific, and sensitive test that can bridge between in vitro serum IgE tests and in vivo clinical testing.49 51 The mechanisms of mast cell and basophil activation have recently been reviewed by Knol.52 More recently, alternative methods for measuring basophil activation have been described, such as the measurement of sulfidoleukotriene release and allergen-induced expression of surface markers such as CD63.53,54 Many of the newest techniques for measuring basophil activation are flow-cytometric55 and tend to be used with latex and drug allergen compounds however, the longest history of experimental use with food allergens remains the hista-mine...

Bees Wasps And Hornets

The diagnosis of hymenopterism is straightforward, with accurate historical recollection by almost all patients. The painful, red, swollen sting usually resolves spontaneously in a few hours. Cold compresses and analgesics help, as does removing bee stingers. More extensive local allergic reactions can develop within two days and last a week NSAIDs, antihistamines, cold compresses, and, if necessary, prednisone, will relieve symptoms.

Consumerism

At the same time, consumer concerns over the health and environmental impacts of biotechnology products is resulting in a slower rate of their adoption in agricultural production. On the health side, concerns over the potential for increased levels of allergic reactions from consuming foods generated through biotechnology have been raised. Environmental concerns have also been raised regarding the potential for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to escape into the larger gene pool, resulting in an irreversible change in the composition of genetic resources and the potential for the spread of undesirable organisms such as super weeds (Rissler and Mellon, 1996). r

The History

Not every worker exposed to an agricultural environment will develop an occupational skin disease. Factors that place the worker in greater or lesser jeopardy are age, the work environment, a history of atopy and other allergic conditions, the presence of concomitant skin disease such as psoriasis, plant or field cleanliness, worker cleanliness, and the gender of the worker. Younger workers may be inexperienced or not follow safety regulations. There is also the phenomenon of hardening seen in older workers who have been working in the particular agriculture environment for a long time. On the other hand, younger workers may heal faster (Table 18.1) (9,14).

Epidemiology

Cotton farming was more highly associated with rhinitis than any other crop, though nut, fruit berry, and grain crops were associated with a statistically significant increase in risk, and flowers were almost statistically significant in their association. Asthma was most statistically associated with flower crops, although grain crops were not evaluated, a mild association was found between root crops and asthma. The table even suggests that vegetable farming is associated with significantly less rhinitis and asthma. Though not included in Table 26.1, oilseed rape flour or oil is often associated with occupational asthma. Although latex allergies have been well-documented in hospital workers, natural rubber plantation workers have at least 4 times the exposure to natural rubber latex aeroallergens as hospital workers according to one study (Table 26.1) (12,13,14).

Fire Ants

In endemic areas, such as the southeastern United States, fire ants represent the leading cause of insect hypersensitivity (42) and, perhaps, of anaphylaxis (43). The 2 to 5 mm, red-brown ants, Solenop-sis richteri and Solenopsis invicta, nest in up to 50-cm diameter mounds bearing up to 200,000 ants with tunnels to the outside world that can extend to 25 m from the mound center. Up to 10,000 stings can be inflicted on an individual who disturbs the mounds (44). The stinging ant first bites into the skin before pivoting about its head to deliver multiple stings through a stinging apparatus at its caudal end. The venom, a necrotizing toxin containing solenamine, produces a wheal and flare reaction within 30 minutes that resolves 30 minutes later a sterile pustule forms about a day later, for which there is no effective treatment (45), but it does resolve on its own a few days later if undisturbed bandage can help prevent excoriation. Steroid creams can help...

Tetanus Prophylaxis

Contraindications to immunizations in trauma include a documented history of a severe allergic reaction leading to acute respiratory distress, or collapse with a prior immunization. Side effects include local reactions with erythema and induration, exaggerated local reactions, and, uncommonly, fever and systemic reactions (21).

Urticaria

Acute and chronic urticaria and angioedema can result from exposure to a number of agricultural products. They may be caused by immunologic and nonimmunologic histamine releasers. Immunologic mechanisms involve type I (immunoglobulin G IgG -mediated), type II (cytotoxic antibody-mediated), or type III (immune complex-mediated) reactions. Nonimmunologic mechanisms usually involve substances such as aspirin that directly incite the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells. Medications, foods, food additives, and the bites of insects and snakes have been implicated. Common food allergies include shellfish, fish, eggs, nuts, chocolate, berries, tomatoes, cheese, and milk (27). Latex Allergies Latex hypersensitivity reactions are categorized into two main types (1) type IV or delayed (cell-mediated) hypersensitivity reactions, and (2) type I or immediate (IgE-mediated) anaphylactic reactions. Risk of sensitization is dependent on the frequency and intensity of NRL exposure....

Conclusions

The primary goal of the protein allergenicity assessment process is characterization of transgenic proteins prior to their inclusion in foods so that risk of allergenic protein exposure remains low. An excellent example of the success of this process was the proposed transfer of a Brazil nut 2S albumin encoding gene into soybean in an attempt to improve nutritional quality.68 Because the Brazil nut was a known allergenic food, the 2S albumin was assessed for its potential allergenicity. Using the assessment process, this protein was found to be allergenic and the GM product never reached the consumer market place. With regard to potential alterations to the allergenicity of proteins, there is to date no evidence from marketing surveys or other studies that a nonallergenic, transgenic protein expressed in food has become altered to affect human allergy.69-71 Consensus on the methods used in the allergy assessment of novel proteins has progressed in recent years with the impetus toward...

Food Safety Concerns

The potential risks of biotechnology on human health may include toxic reactions, increased cancer risks, food allergies, food contamination, and antibiotic resistance (Table 4.1). There is also concern that GMOs in animal feed might present a health risk for consumers, or for the animal itself. Consumers are also concerned about the long-term health effects of genetically modified foods. 3. Food allergies. In 1996, a Brazil nut gene spliced into soybean was reported to induce potentially fatal allergies in people sensitive to Brazil nuts.

Risk assessment

The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has developed a decision tree that provides a framework for risk assessment in foods (Lehrer, 2000). It uses the following criteria, that an introduced protein in a food is not a concern if (i) there is no history of common allergenicity (ii) there is no amino acid sequence similar to those of known allergens (iii) there is rapid digestion of the protein and (iv) the protein is expressed at low levels. For example, these risk assessment techniques were used to test the safety of increasing the protein content in soybean by introducing a protein from Brazil nut. However, food allergy tests showed that this transferred a potential allergen to soybean. Hence, further development of this GM high-protein soybean ceased. The techniques for assessing the potential for allergenicity, toxicity and carcinogens in food are well established and should be readily able to be used by trained professionals in many countries (Metcalf et al., 1996...

Allergic To Everything

Allergic To Everything

The human body And Todays chemical infested world. Here is a news flash You are not allergic to pollen, pet dander, or whatever it is that makes your body revolt Rather, your body just can not handle that one thing, what ever it is, anymore, due to the massive barrage of toxic chemicals you and everyone else are ingesting every single day.

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