A powerful natural antioxidant

Improved nutritional and medicinal quality

With 800 million malnourished people in developing countries, malnutrition can be addressed with nutritional genomics that use metabolic engineering to manipulate plant micronutrients for human health (DellaPenna, 1999 Tian and DellaPenna, 2001 Lucca, Hurrell, and Potrykus, 2002 Mackey, 2002). Although the production of the so-called functional foods may initially focus on wealthy consumers in the developed world, genes can be engineered into crops cultivated and consumed by poor farmers to improve their dietary requirements. Efforts are also being made to enhance nutritional values and or reduced toxic or allergenic properties in food. These may be especially beneficial to poor farmers and people who do not have a balanced diet composed of diverse food sources. The example of GM rice with enhanced beta-carotene and iron is just the beginning of efforts of what has been coined nutraceuticals. This would benefit people whether rich or poor in developed or developing countries. Indeed,...

Interaction Of Factors

Sorbic acid at 1000ppm and pH 7.0 will not inhibit mold growth. However, if the pH is lowered to 5.0, growth of most molds will be inhibited (Liewen and Marth 1985). Antioxidants such as BHA and BHT have been shown to potentiate the action of sorbic acid (Scott 1989). In general, antifungal food additives become more effective as environmental conditions move away from the optimum for a particular organism.

Nutrient utilization and effects of mycotoxins on the gut barrier

Based on the observation that mycotoxins reduce weight gain and feed conversion, mycotoxins were hypothesized to have a direct effect on the intestines (Li et al., 2005). A malabsorption syndrome is a common result of exposure to aflatoxins, ochratoxins or trichothecenes. Measurable signs of the malabsorption syndrome are decreased transport of soluble nutrients and (fat-soluble) vitamins. Aflatoxin Bj and ochratoxin A were the first toxins known to induce hypocarotinoedemia and reduced tissue levels of a-tocopherol (vitamin E). Comparable effects were seen in chickens, following exposure to T-2 toxin and aurofusarin. The reduced levels of vitamins with antioxidant properties are associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species and cellular oxidative stress, which impairs both normal cellular function and differentiated traits, such as intracellular killing of pathogens by cells of the immune system (see below).

Avoiding Human Exposure

Example, the carcinogenic effect of AFB1 is affected by nutritional factors, dietary additives, and anticarcinogenic substances. Diet containing chemoprotective agents and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, BHA, BHT, ethoxyquin, oltipraz, penta-acetyl geniposide, Kolaviron biflavonoids, and even green tea, have also been found to inhibit carcinogenesis caused by AFB1 in test animals. The toxic effect of OA and FmB to test animals was minimized when antioxidants such as vitamins C and E are added to the diet. Ascorbic acid also provided protective effect against AFs. Aspartame, which is partially effective in decreasing the nephrotoxic and genotoxic effects of OA, competes with OA for binding to serum albumin. L-phenylalanine was found to have some protective effect for the toxic effects of OA because it diminishing OA's inhibitory effect to some of enzymes discussed earlier.

Antagonist Selection

In addition to being effective in controlling fruit decays, antagonists should have certain attributes to make them good candidates for commercialization. These include compatibility with postharvest practices (storage temperatures, relative humidity-RH, storage atmosphere with elevated CO2 and reduced O2, handling in water, heat drying tunnels, etc.), treatments and additives (waxes, antioxidants, flotation salts), ability to grow efficiently in a commercially used media for mass production, ease of formulation, and the lack of potentially deleterious effects on human health that would disqualify them from being approved by regulatory agencies. Human safety, in particular, necessitates a thorough

Pathophysiology

Genetic predisposition may play a role in the development of chronic exposure-induced delayed neurotoxicity. At least two research groups found the correlation between the development of Parkinson's disease as a result of exposure to organophosphate pesticides and genetic polymorphisms of glu-tathione transferase, an antioxidant enzyme. As dopamine is the only known major neurotransmitter that produces an active (and toxic) free radical when metabolized by monoaminooxidase, patients with decreased cellular proxi-dant scavenging ability may be more susceptible to development of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (44,48,49). Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein characterized by the lack of rigid well-defined structure. This protein may either stay unfolded or adopt an amyloidogenic folded conformation. It also might form several morphologically different types of aggregates, including oligomers, amorphous aggregates, and or amyloid-like fibrils. This plasticity may...

Phenolic Acids

Phenolic antioxidants have been shown by several researchers to possess antifungal activity. Chang and Branen (1975) demonstrated that in a glucose salt medium, 1000 ppm butylated hydroxanisole (BHA) inhibited growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasticus spores, and 250 ppm inhibited growth and aflatoxin production of A. parasiticus mycelia. However, they found that at 10 ppm of BHA, total aflatoxin production was more than twice that of the control, with virtually no effect on mycelial weight. These results indicate that at high levels, BHA may serve as an effective antifungal agent, however, at low levels BHA may actually stimulate aflatoxin production. The BHA has Since, the primary use of these compounds in foods is as antioxidants, their effectiveness as antifungal agents in food systems has not been adequately studied. While results of experiments in growth media indicate that these compounds exert antifungal effects, extrapolation of these resulting to food systems...

Control Pointa

Food grade antioxidants and natural control measures to prevent toxin formation in wet grain CCP Monitoring for toxinb and producing fungi (LFDs and ELISAs) 1000 cfu g P. verrucosum in wheat Various postharvest treatments have been evaluated for their potential to prevent growth of P. verrucosum and to minimize ochratoxin A accumulation in stored grain. Essential oils, resveratrol and lactic acid bacteria all can limit ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and A. ochraceus on grain (Ricelli et al., 2002 Fanelli et al., 2003 Hope et al., 2005b). However, while some essential oils, e.g., thyme, cinnamon leaf and clove bud, and antioxidants, especially resveratrol, are quite effective, in pilot scale tests the economics of treatment prevents the implementation of these controls at the present time. In small scale storage experiments and experimental maltings, no inhibitory effect attributable to the selected lactic acid bacterial strain was observed.