How to make your own Bioethanol

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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Free Power Secrets

The Free Power Secrets program, developed by Reggie Hamel is a complete step-by-step guide showing you everything you need to know in order to start powering your car, tractor, truck, or anything else that has a motor on homemade alcohol fuel by the end of the week. You'll get video and PDF guides that will teach you step-by-step how to setup your own consistent gas source in the comfort of your home. It doesn't matter if you've never tried DIY projects before. Everything you need to learn can be find in this guide. You get access to a step by step free power secrets guide and video tutorials that allow you to make your own fuel for less than 70 cents a gallon. Although the system is simple and easy to implement, it may not be easy for everyone to do this, especially if you don't get the raw materials for alcohol production regularly. Therefore results may vary from case to case.

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Economic Aspects Of Ethanol Production

With the oil crises in the 1970s and increasing environmental concerns, ethanol has regained some appeal as an alternative motor fuel (Linko 1987) or as an additive to be blended with gasoline. Because ethanol is an oxygenate that reduces vehicle exhaust emissions, it is environmentally friendly (Bollok et al. 2000). To remain successful in that role, the cost of production must be low compared to gasoline. In this part, the economic aspect of ethanol production will be discussed.

Costs and Benefits of Ethanol Production

Although from time to time the government may provide tax incentives to jump-start an interest in renewable energy resources which in practice is synonymous with ethanol from biomass, the production process must be inherently competitive for it to be sustained in the long run. Table 8 shows a study of ethanol production in California. It gives the price of different feedstocks at near-term and midterm operation at a large scale. The target price takes into account the operating costs, the debt, and return on investment. The target price decreases from near-term to mid-term, as the technology improves and forces down the production cost. Even when the cellulosic feedstock is inexpensive, conversion into ethanol may be costly. Cellulase enzymes cost 45 cents gal of ethanol and are, therefore, too expensive at the commercial level. Table 8 Assumed feedstock cost, ethanol production yields, ethanol prices from cellulose based biomass Table 8 Assumed feedstock cost, ethanol...

Production of Bioethanol

Ethanol is an alternative fuel derived from biologically renewable resources and can be employed to replace octane enhancers such as methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene or oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) (Champagne, 2008). A potential source for low-cost ethanol production is the utilization of ligonocellulosic materials (e.g., crop residues, grass, livestock manure) however, the high cost of biethanol production using current technologies does not make this a feasible option. There has been considerable effort from various research groups to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic waste material using crop residues (Kim and Dale, 2004) and animal manure (Chen et al. 2003, 2004 Wen et al. 2004). For instance, a research group at Washington State University developed a process for hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials from cattle manure into fermentable sugars (Chen et al. 2003, 2004). According to the...

Biofuels Goals

As was stated in the objectives section, the biofuels goals for the study are For biodiesel, the goal is to reach a billion gallons by 2012. This goal and further expansion of biodiesel is presented in Figure 6. Both Figures 5 and 6 can be compared with the recently passed renewable fuels standard of 7.5 billion gallons by 2012 for ethanol and biodiesel. A portion of this must be made of cellulosic ethanol by 2013. Figure 5. Ethanol Production and Production Targets with the Current Renewable Fuel Figure 5. Ethanol Production and Production Targets with the Current Renewable Fuel Figure 6. Biodiesel Production and Production Targets, 1999-2030.

Biofuels Cost

The costs of production for ethanol and for biodiesel given the different feedstocks are presented in Table 9. The costs reported correspond to the ETH60 scenario. Although not listed, the costs of the other scenarios follow this general trend, but with even higher corn grain ethanol and soybean biodiesel costs in the years in which corn and soybean prices rise. It should be noted that the biodiesel from yellow grease and tallow costs do include a 1.30 cost for the feedstock (Ash and Dohlman, 2006). Yellow grease costs are about 12-13 cents per pound and inedible tallow prices are about 16-17 cents per pound. These prices imply feedstock costs of about .90 to 1.00 per gallon for biodiesel from yellow grease and 1.20 to 1.30 per gallon for biodiesel from tallow. The collection costs for yellow grease could be relatively high, while in the case of tallow, locating the conversion facility next to rendering facilities would result in a relatively low collection cost of the feedstock.

Conversion Costs and Coefficients

The conversion costs and technical coefficients used in the model can be found in the document entitled, Economic Implications to the Agricultural Sector of Increasing the Production of Biomass Feedstocks to Meet Bio-power, Bio-fuels, and Bio-product Demands (De La Torre Ugarte et. al., 2006). A few technical improvements are assumed for the extension through 2030. Conversion coefficients of cellulose to ethanol were increased linearly for stover, straw and dedicated energy crops from 2015 to 2030 to final coefficients of 87.9, 83.2 and 90.2 gals per ton respectively. The conversion of corn grain to ethanol is assumed to increase from 2.7 gals per bushel in 2014 to 3.0 gals per bushel in 2019, and thereafter remain steady. Biodiesel is also assumed to increase from 1.4 gals per bushel in 2014 to 1.5 gals per bushel in 2019 and thereafter remain steady. Wood residue is also added as a feedstock for conversion to ethanol. Wood residue technical coefficients were derived by adjusting...

Perennial Polyculture Farming Seeds of Another Agricultural Revolution

Humanity today faces a variety of problems on a global scale. These problems include poverty and hunger, growing worries about fossil fuel consumption, environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, health problems particularly among women and children and a growing global disparity in education levels.1 There is no shortage of solutions proposed for each of these problems, but there is one solution perennial polyculture farming that could contribute answers to each of these problems and deserves more attention than it has received. This extended opinion piece argues for the promise of perennial polyculture farming as a positive contribution to a wide variety of global problems and suggests actions that should be taken to explore that promise further. The format will be a series of questions and answers about perennial polyculture farming

Impacts to the Agricultural Sector

Production, prices, and acreage from each of the 305 (ASD) are determined independently and aggregated to obtain information at the state level for barley, corn, cotton, hay, oats, rice, sorghum, soybeans, dedicated energy crops, wheat, corn stover, and wheat straw. In addition, information on the cost of production of dedicated energy crops by ASD is transferred from the POLYSYS solution, along with national energy production estimates for electricity generated from fuel sources, including animal waste, food waste, and wood ethanol generated from corn, corn stover, wheat straw, dedicated energy crops, and wood and biodiesel from yellow grease and soybeans. To incorporate the POLYSYS data into IMPLAN for the agricultural (non forest) impacts, the following procedure was followed 1) the change in Total Industry Output (TIO) is calculated for corn, sorghum, oats, barley, wheat, soybeans, cotton, and rice including changes in proprietary income and government payments 2) for states...

Impacts to the Renewable Energy Sector

Based on information from POLYSYS and the non-agricultural energy goals plus the target goal, a renewable energy sector is created consisting of a weighted mix of conversion facilities. Quantities of electricity, ethanol, and biodiesel produced in each state from agricultural and non-agricultural renewable fuel types are estimated. These quantities are then used as weights to develop the estimated input expenditures required to meet the projected state level of production and inserted as GAC's into the model. Based on 2002-2004 energy prices, the total industry output is estimated and the sector impacted by that amount to determine induced and indirect effects. Finally, investment impacts are estimated using the number of facilities required to meet electric demand in each state assuming that the impacts occurred in the year that the facility was needed to meet renewable energy demand.

Key Study Assumptions

Ethanol and Biodiesel Goals Ethanol-10 billion gallons by 2010, 30 billion by 2020, and 60 billion by 2030. Biodiesel-1 billion gallons by 2012, with an additional .6 billion gallons from yellow grease and tallow by 2030. Ethanol-Corn grain, corn stover, wheat straw, dedicated energy crops (switchgrass). Biodiesel-Soybeans, tallow, and yellow grease.

Technical Overview Of Biotechnology

Pressure from anti-GM groups (Herrera-Estrella, 2002). In addition, a research group at Purdue University has cloned a phosphate transporter gene from Arabidopsis. These genes were also found in other crops such as tomato, potato, and alfalfa. This will allow the development of GM plants with more efficient uptake of phosphate (Muchhal and Raghothama, 1999 Mukatira et al., 2001). Scientists are conducting research on biological nitrogen fixation with the objective of making nonleguminous crops, such as rice, fix their own nitrogen, or expanding the host range of nitrogen-fixing bacteria so that more crops can have such symbiotic relationships. This would also help to protect the environment by saving fossil fuel needed to produce nitrogen fertilizer.

Scenario 1 Ethanol 60 Billion gallons ETH60

The main scenario of the analysis is given by pursuing the biofuels targets defined earlier in this document using the technology assumptions in the previous section. This scenario also implies that the cellulose-to-ethanol technology would be commercially available by the year 2012. Another important assumption is that the corn grain-to-ethanol industry would be protected. This means that the use of corn grain would be kept at levels to maintain a high use level of utilization of the production capacity of these plants, even in the face of the introduction of new technology. This would be a risk reducing mechanism to accelerate the level of investment.

Agricultural Sector Impacts

The estimates obtained from POLYSYS indicate that the goals targeted in this analysis can be achieved at a reasonable cost by the proposed target year of 2030. The production of feedstock to meet the biofuels demand can be done by re-allocating the current cropland in production and shifting land use towards bioenergy dedicated energy crops, like switchgrass. While the current ethanol industry is based on the transformation of corn grain into ethanol, reaching the proposed ethanol production and utilization level of 60 billion gallons will require a major contribution of cellulosic feedstock dedicated energy crops (switchgrass), residues from To reach the desired goal of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel by 2012 plus increasing this quantity beyond 2012, it is necessary to utilize both soybeans and other feedstocks such as yellow grease and tallow. Regional results indicate that the Northern Plains and the Southeast will be the primary areas in which dedicated energy crops will be...

What Are Possible Secondary Benefits

Beyond the more direct benefits of reversing environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity, perennial polyculture farming holds the promise of indirectly addressing other global problems. These problems include global hunger and poverty, growing worries about fossil fuel

Bioenergy Production and Fuels Imports Reduction

Biodiesel The original target for biodiesel was to reach a billion gallons by the year 2012, which is accomplished (although the data presented in the referenced table does not include that particular year). It is important to mention that by the year 2030 the production of biodiesel continues to increase to 1.6 billion gallons.

Feedstock Utilization

The production of biofuels, ethanol and biodiesel presented above is derived from several feedstock sources. In the case of ethanol, there is not only a differentiation between corn grain and cellulosic, but there are also several sources of cellulosic feedstock. Figure 9. Ethanol Production Path Under the ETH60 Scenario. Figure 9. Ethanol Production Path Under the ETH60 Scenario. Regarding feedstock utilization through the year 2012, corn grain continues to be the base of ethanol production. Given the goals presented in this study and their timing, the first 12

Figure 10 Ethanol Quantities from Selected Feedstock Under the ETH60 Scenario

Regarding biodiesel, there are two major categories of feedstock, soybeans and residues. The residues include yellow grease and tallow from animal rendering. In this analysis the objective was to reach 1 billion gallons of biodiesel by 2012. Figure 11 depicts the path to achieve the goal and the feedstock utilization between soybeans and residues. Sensitivity analysis was used to consider an alternative target of 2 billion gallons of biodiesel, but given the current oil crop soybeans, the price impact to reach the target was above 8 per bushel, which is unreasonably high. Additional biofuels crop mix between ethanol and biodiesel could have been considered, but for all practical purposes, the results would have meant pressure on the same cropland, and the results would be similar. Figure 11. Biodiesel from Selected Feedstock Under the ETH60 Scenario. Figure 11. Biodiesel from Selected Feedstock Under the ETH60 Scenario.

Figure 12 Ethanol from Selected Feedstock Under the ETH60CA Scenario

Under the ETH60CACD Scenario, the second assumption retained, but the introduction of cellulose-to-ethanol production is delayed until 2015 rather than 2012. The ethanol from the specified feedstock under this scenario is shown in Figure 13. The first observation is that the use of corn for ethanol will not peak until 2015, and it will peak close to 18 billion gallons of ethanol. After the peak year, there will be a significant reduction in the use of grain corn for ethanol in response to the entrance of the cellulose-to-ethanol technology. Notably, the buildup in production capacity that was necessary to take the corn to ethanol industry to 18 billion gallons in 2015 results in excess capacity. Consequently, the cost of transition from corn grain to cellulose ethanol would become costlier in terms of conversion costs creating the potential necessity for a partial corn grain-to-ethanol industry bailout. The price impacts are analyzed later on in this document.

Biomass As A Sugar Source

A number of processes have been developed to degrade cellulose and to produce ethanol, although successful commercial units to date remain few in number. The most well known is simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), where the bioreactor brings together cellulose, glucose, cellobiose, cellulase enzymes, yeast (but not fungi), and nutrients to produce ethanol (Philippidis 1992). This process involves a number of different steps all carried out in one vessel. To avoid the setback associated with SSF, another process known as mixed culture and fermentation was developed, where a consortium of fungi and bacteria, or fungi and yeast, rather than simply yeast alone as was in SSF, convert cellulose into ethanol in one combined step (Wilke et al. 1983). We will review cellulose pretreatment and focus on fungal conversion of cellulose into ethanol, and finally we will touch upon the economic aspects of ethanol production.

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

We give the description of a typical SSF process that aims to recycle solid waste into ethanol, which functions as an alternative fuel. The solid utilized in this process is approximately two-thirds urban waste and one-third pulp mill waste. This solid mixture contains approximately 57 in cellulose. The waste is pretreated, sterilized, and then forwarded to three reactors of 2500 gal each. A culture of mutant fungus T. reesei is inoculated into each reactor. The fungus continuously produces a full complement of cellulases that degrade cellulose. The total residence time for each cellulase production strain is 48 h. Ninety percent of the cellulose introduced into the reactors is degraded into sugars, such as pentose, xylose, arabinose, and glucose. Subsequently, the degraded cellulose is cooled in a heat exchanger and sent into 12 reactors for fermentation into ethanol. In this system, one can shut down four reactors while continuing operating the remaining reactors in full swing. The...

Economic Analysis of Ethanol Conversion Technologies

Figure 3 illustrates the process of ethanol production by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis and fermentation. In the hydrolysis step, cellulose is pretreated in 0.05 g l of sulfuric acid at 180 C. For the purpose of economic comparison, we consider the concentration of sugars yielded to be 103.7 g l. Following hydrolysis, a strain of fungus is responsible for the continuous fermentation of sugars (pentose and hexose) into ethanol (So and Brown 1999).

Figure 14 Changes in Land Use for Selected Years Under the ETH60 Scenario

The third major change is the decrease in the plantings of soybeans. Over the duration of the period, the projected area planted to soybeans goes from 73.3 million acres in 2007 to 62.7 million acres in 2030, a reduction of 10.6 million acres. This reduction occurs in part because unlike corn, soybean produces almost no biomass residues, so it does not receive the additional benefit of the demand from the cellulose-to-ethanol industry and the corresponding potential increase in revenues. Additionally, the increased production of corn ethanol provides for an increase in the availability of distiller's dryed grains. Exports of soybeans also decline as a more stable domestic demand in the form of soybeans for biodiesel and soybeans for meal replaces exports.

Evolution of agriculture industry structure and user needs

The Canadian agriculture and agri-food system is a complex integrated production, transformation and distribution chain of industries supplying food, beverages, feed, tobacco, biofuels and biomass to domestic and international consumers (Chartrand, 2007). It is an integral part of the global economy, with trade occurring at each stage of the chain. However, the relative contribution of primary agriculture to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment has been declining significantly. Although the value of agricultural production has tripled since 1961, the Canadian economy as a whole has grown at a faster rate (by six times), driven mainly by growth in the high-tech and service sectors (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2006). The result has been a drop in the share of primary agriculture to about 1.3 of GDP. On the other hand, the agriculture and agri-food industry as a whole remains a significant contributor to the Canadian economy, accounting for 8.0 of total GDP and 12.8 of...

Government Payments and Net Farm Income

The new demand by biofuels for agricultural resources resulted in changes in land use and a general increase in commodity prices. These two elements have significant consequences for government payments for agricultural programs and for net farm income. Table 17 indicates the impacts in government payments as a result of considering the ETH60 scenario. It contains the impacts on each of these payments categories. The changes in government payments are extremely sensitive to the baseline levels of prices and payments. The changes follow the USDA outlook for Loan Deficiency Payments and Counter Cyclical Payments. While payments are at very low levels in the baseline, the current year crop has shown a significant deviation from USDA projections. Even given these low baseline levels of payments, the increase prices induced by the new biofuels demand resulted in savings in government payments of about a 1 billion for Loan Deficiency Payments, and an additional 7 billion in Counter Cyclical...

Impacts on the Nations Economy

As shown in Table 18, in the USDA baseline, 7.02 billion gallons is produced in the year 2010 and expands to 8.75 billion gallons in the years 2020 and 2030. The baseline assumes no growth in feedstock quantities past 2015. The growth in baseline biofuels quantities is a result of improved conversion of these feedstocks. By 2030, a total of 110 billion annually is directly generated in the economy via purchasing inputs, adding value to those inputs, and supplying biofuels to the nation. In addition, these expenditures create additional impacts. The total impact to the nation's economy is estimated at 368 billion per year creating an estimated 2.4 million jobs (Table 19). These impacts do not account for the potential of reduced economic activity that might occur in the current energy industry. However, if biofuels are used to meet new energy demands, the gasoline refining industry might experience minimal or no downsizing. The impacts projected in this study are divided into two areas...

Summary of Key Findings

Some of the key findings revolving around attaining a 60 billion gallon ethanol goal and a 1.6 billion gallon biodiesel goal by the are presented in Table 20. The 60 billion gallon goal is attainable by 2030. Reaching the goal by 2030 would result in a cumulative displacement of 490.4 billion gallons of gasoline (the equivalent of 10.48 billion barrels of oil). A biodiesel goal of 1.6 billion gallons by 2030 is also attainable. Prior to 2012, corn grain will be the primary feedstock for ethanol. As cellulosic to ethanol is commercialized, dedicated energy crops will become the dominant feedstock. Soybeans serve as the primary feedstock for biodiesel (1 billion gallons) along with tallow and yellow grease (.6 billion gallons) Biofuels Cost Average ethanol costs decline over the period from 1.45 per gallon in 2007 to 1.23 in 2030. Biodiesel from soybeans is 4.22 per gallon in 2007 and increases to 4.91 per gallon in 2030, reflecting the increase in feedstock prices. Yellow grease costs...

Estimating Overall Costs of Wastewater Treatment Processes with Substance and Energy Recovery

Overall costs of wastewater treatment processes with substance energy recovery in a treatment facility are the sum of capital costs and operating costs minus sale price or savings of recovered substances and or energy. However, forecasting cost savings as a result of recovered substances and or energy is difficult. Whether a new product or energy from a waste-water treatment facility will be accepted in the marketplace depends on several factors, including additional costs of producing the product, properties of the product, environmental impact, public acceptance, and governmental subsidies. An additional hurdle to forecasting the fate of a recovered product from the food and agricultural wastewater treatment process is that price and or availability of the competing alternative to the recycled product is also changing constantly thus, any meaningful long-term forecasting of economical benefits of energy substance recovery from wastes is contentious. Biofuel is a case in point if the...

Energy Production from Agricultural Waste

Poletory Diagram Schedule

Although it is clear from above discussion that ethanol production through fermentative methods from crops and other renewable biomass sources has received much attention recently, crop-based feed-stocks are subject to seasonal fluctuations in supply, ultimately limiting ethanol generation (Kasper et al. 2001). The energy cost in harvesting these feedstocks (e.g., corn stubble) as well as their lost value as soil amendments can make ethanol production costly for farmers (Pimental, 1992). Animal manures avoid many of these problems because they are a truly renewable feedstock. Production of ethanol from animal waste through the process of gasification is another new technology that has been trialed (Kaspers et al. 2001).

Challenges For Food Security In This Century And Beyond

Today we face many critical issues in agriculture (a) an exponentially growing human population (b) recurrent famine (c) the destruction of natural landscapes such as tropical rain forests to extend agriculture to previously unused lands (d) the exodus of human civilization from rural communities to cities (e) the destruction of environmental quality resulting from exposure to agrochemicals, erosion of soils and salinization of soils as well as exhaustion and contamination of fresh water resources (f) the loss of biodiversity through monocropping and the destruction of natural habitats (g) the reliance of agricultural production, transport, and storage systems on fossil fuel (h) the acquisition and concentration of agricultural wealth by multinational corporations and (i) an issuant lack of knowledge by a growing proportion of human civilization on how to cultivate, prepare, and preserve food. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization predicts that agricultural productivity...

Recoverable Carbohydrates Fats and Proteins for Human and Animal Consumption

Animal feed, protein isolates, hormones, enzymes, savory compounds, vitamins, glue, gelatin, fish oils, and biodiesel Animal feed, lactic acid fermentation ingredients, fermentation feedstock, paper, and ethanol Feed ingredients in lactic acid fermentation, animal feed, flavors, and biofuels Fermentation feedstock, biofuels, and plastic filler (nutshell) Food ingredient, animal feed, fermentation feedstock for specialty chemicals, and biofuel Fermentation feedstock for specialty chemicals Biofuels and specialty chemicals (e.g., tartrate)

Figure 2 Bioenergy Sources

In order to project the agricultural and economic impacts of expanded ethanol and biodiesel production, two models are employed. The POLYSYS model (De La Torre Ugarte and Ray, 2000 Ray et al, 1998a De La Torre Ugarte et al, 1998 Ray et al, 1998b) has the unique ability to provide annual estimates of changes in land use resulting from the demand generated by bioenergy industries, including changes in economic conditions that affect adjustment costs. While maintaining a long-term analytical horizon, the proposed research emphasizes the challenges faced by increasing competition for land from bioenergy and traditional agricultural uses. This approach accounts for adoption and the identification of short-term requirements that a market or policy incentive mechanism must meet for agriculture to remain a reliable source of feedstocks for bioenergy, without imposing significant costs to consumers. Furthermore, the POLYSYS model is linked with an input-output model, IMPLAN, to project the...

Daniel De La Torre Ugarte Burton English Kim Jensen Chad Hellwinckel Jamey Menard and Brad Wilson

This study was undertaken to examine the impacts of expanded levels of ethanol and biodiesel production and to provide a better understanding of the potential economic and agricultural impacts of this expansion. The study results indicate that producing 60 billion gallons of ethanol and 1.6 billion gallons of biodiesel from renewable resources by the year 2030 is projected to result in the development of a new industrial complex with nearly 35 million acres planted to dedicated energy crops. This industrial complex is estimated to have an economic impact in excess of 350 billion within the U.S., creating 2.4 million additional jobs, many in Rural America. Not only can U.S. agriculture meet the nation's food and feed demand, but it has sufficient resources to produce significant quantities of biofuels. Bioenergy allows for a potential win-win-win scenario for energy security, agriculture, and rural economic development. Using POLYSYS, an agricultural simulation model developed at the...

Cellulose Degradation

In a simplistic summary, there are four major steps in generating bioethanol and other biomass-derived products (a) generate biomass through photosynthesis, (b) process raw biomass to a form suitable for microbial fermentation, (c) ferment biomass into ethanol (or other products), and (d) recover product and recycle unfermented residual biomass. We will not dwell here on the first step that takes place in nature. We present the remaining steps to place in proper perspective fungi based cellulose degradation. Pretreatment of the cellulosic biomass is necessary in the yeast and bacteria based cellulose conversion, because these microorganisms do not easily hydrolyze woods and agricultural residues. If they did, biomass material would not remain for long nor accumulate (and wood would be totally unsuitable as a


Agriculture is uniquely positioned among the current renewable energy sources (Figure 1) to be a source of energy feedstock that can contribute to the production of both power (electricity) and transportation fuels (ethanol and biodiesel). It is also well positioned to be a good fit to utilize the current infrastructure of distribution and energy utilization, in both electricity generation and transportation engines. Furthermore, when referring to agricultural feedstock for energy, there is a diverse set of feedstock (Figure 2) like traditional starch and sugar crops, crop residues, dedicated energy crops, animal waste, forest residues, mill wastes, and food residues. This diversity of feedstock resources enables specific regions of the country to contribute with their unique set of resources. Use of bioenergy feedstocks could not only help reduce reliance on foreign oil, but could also provide significant environmental benefits and help invigorate rural economies. The purpose of this...


Bioenergy allows for a potential win-win-win-win scenario for energy security-agriculture - rural economic development- environmental benefits. The overall objective of this report is to assess the potential impacts of increasing production of ethanol and biodiesel beyond current market levels and the levels specified in the recently enacted renewable fuel standard, and to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with such an increase in the production of biofuels. Specifically, the objective of the study is to analyze the impacts on agriculture and the economy from increased ethanol (starch and cellulosic) production. The level of production analyzed is 10, 30, and 60 billion gallons of ethanol annually by 2010, 2020 and 2030, respectively. Sensitivity to the timing of cellulosic to ethanol commercial introduction and, once introduced, the impacts it has on the corn to ethanol industry is conducted. The study also includes an assessment of the impacts of producing 1...

Modeling Methodology

Using the conversion technologies presented, for illustrative purposes the prices per gallon for ethanol and biodiesel were 2.11 gallon and 2.52 gallon, respectively. State averages of ethanol and biodiesel were developed from several sources. For ethanol, where splash prices were available, the state average price per gallon was used. For states where the average was not available, the average of the states in the region is used. For regions where data were not available, the average of nearby regions is used. For states where the spot was available but not rack, the spot is multiplied by 1.04, which is the average ratio of rack to spot prices for certain available cities (OPIS, 2005). The same procedure was used for estimating state-by-state wholesale prices for B-100.


Biological farming is a blend of the art of farming and science, and is gaining in popularity because the extent of the environmental damage caused by chemicals and pollution is becoming too serious to ignore. People are trying to develop systems of farming that will produce the food and fibre needed to feed and clothe the global population in a sustainable way. The reliance on fossil fuel energy and chemicals is clearly doing immense environmental damage, and the system primarily used at present is running down food producing resources globally. Often with the current system of farming, it costs more energy to produce food (energy inputs) than the energy in the food produced (energy output). This is clearly not sustainable. Countries such as China, for example, have been producing food from the same land for thousands of years using the cycling of nutrients method, without the use of chemical inputs, or even fossil fuel energy. This has been made possible because of the very large...

Price Impacts

The production of biofuels not only would drive major changes in land use, but would also have significant impacts upon agricultural commodity prices (Table 8). The prices of the major crops are shown by selected years for the baseline (USDAext), the ETH60 scenario, for allowing corn grain ethanol production to decline (ETH60CA), and for the scenario with the additional delay in the commercial availability of cellulose-to-ethanol conversion technology (ETH60CACD). The third scenario, ETH60CACD, provides sensitivity to what might happen if a delay in the introduction of cellulose-to-ethanol technology occurs. The price increase, by 2015, represents the impact of the surge in biofuels demand on the current conversion technology. The price deflation following the 2015 peak is an indication of the size of the downward adjustment that may come into place as cellulose-to-ethanol becomes available.

Climate Prediction

Sumption of fossil fuels, (2) increase in the concentration of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, (4) development of land areas, and (5) other human activities, including rain making, irrigation, and the creation of artificial lakes and reservoirs, change of land use associated with urbanization and above-ground nuclear explosions.


The analyses performed indicate that U.S. agriculture is in a position to play a significant role as a source of energy. Not only can the U.S. meet food and feed demands, but it can also produce 60 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2030. This would replace over 20 percent of the gasoline needs in the US market and would be produced from U.S. crop and forest lands. In addition to the ethanol, by 2030, 1.6 billion gallons of biodiesel per year could also be produced. By 2030, the production of biofuels from renewable feedstocks will generate an estimated 368 billion of additional economic activity per year and potentially create 2.4 million jobs. This annual amount includes 110 billion in economic activity directly linked to the production and conversion of biofeedstocks to ethanol and biodiesel. An estimated 45 billion in tax revenue is generate for local, states and federal governments. The development of a sustainable bioenergy industry should rely on an environmentally sound...

Enzymatic Breakdown

Synthetic Genomics, from Rockville Maryland, is in search for a bacterium that will do every thing. It is funding the work that scientist at the J. Craig Venter Institute to build new organisms that would produce ethanol and other biofuels. Another significant event is the announcement by Xethanol Corporation of NewYork to build a 50 million gallon year cellulosic ethanol plant in Augusta Georgia. Xethanol will partner with PRAJ Technology an India based world leader in bio-ethanol technology. The plant would be designed to process multiple cellulosic feedstocks however it would start with the process of residues from forestry operations. Dupont and Chevron have also announced independent joint ventures to advance the conversion of cellulosic ethanol into biofuels. Dupont and ethanol producer Broin announce plans to produce biofuels from corn stover. Broin is planning to convert one of its six corn-to-ethanol plants in Iowa into a biorefinery that will use both corn grain and corn...

Meet Ethanol Demand

This situation, corn grain use for ethanol cannot fall below the previous year's use. This results in biomass filling all increases in ethanol production because it can produce ethanol cheaper than corn grain. Distiller's dry grains from ethanol production and soybean meal from biodiesel production are integrated within the model to evaluate how their quantities and prices affect the final market equilibrium. For every bushel of corn grain (56 pounds) used in ethanol production, 18.3 pounds of distiller dry grains are produced. It is assumed that distillers dry grains substitutes for livestock corn grain demand. One ton of distillers dry grain displaces 35.71 bushels of corn feed demand (Bullock, 2006). For every bushel of soybeans (60 pounds) used in biodiesel production, 45.5 pounds of soybean meal are produced. The soybean meal byproduct enters into the POLYSYS soybean product module where price are endogenously determined. The revenue from the sale of soybean meal is credited to...


Biodiesel from Soybeans English, B., K. Jensen, and J. Menard in cooperation with Frazier, Barnes & Associates, Llc. 2002. Economic Feasibility of Producing Biodiesel in Tennessee. Biodiesel from Yellow Grease Fortenberry, T. 2005. Biodiesel Feasibility Study An Evaluation of Biodiesel Feasibility in Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Agricultural & Applied Economics. Staff Paper No. 481.