Since numerous yeast strains are being produced for the commercial wine market, it is interesting to study the degree of relatedness between commercial Saccharomyces strains. Fernandez-Espinar et al. (2001) characterized 45 selected yeasts from 10 different yeast producers. Three molecular techniques, namely mtDNA restriction analysis (Figure 3), electrophoretic karyotyping (Figure 4) and specific PCR of 8 sequences (Figure 2), were used for this purpose. The maximum discriminatory power was obtained when the results of the three techniques were combined. The results showed evidence of mistakes during production or fraudulent practices by yeast producers, since the same strains commercialized under different names or the same name is used for different products by different companies.
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