The enhanced resistance for disease shown by some endophyte-infected plants is generally considered to result from the production of defense compounds by the endophyte-plant infection. An example of this is the inoculation of maize kernels by endophytic Fusarium monilimorme, which is reported to protect against infection by pathogenic F. graminearum (Van Wyck and Scholts 1988). Nonpatho-genic, endophytic strains of F. oxysporum isolated from suppressive soils have been used as biological control agents for manage diseases caused by pathogenic Fusarium species on watermelon, cucumber, celery, and other crops (Larkin et al. 1996; Schneider 1984). In each case, these fungi were endophytes of the hosts they protected. Endophytic Hetero-conium chaetosprira is reported to almost completely suppress clubroot formation in Chinese cabbage caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae (Narisawa et al. 1998).

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