Aspergillus and Penicillium species, and concluded that spices used in amounts as employed normally for ordinary food were insufficient as preservatives. However, when used in larger amount, cinnamon, cloves, and all spices retarded mold growth. Bullerman (1974) reported that cinnamon in concentrations as low as 0.02% inhibited mold growth and aflatoxin production in culture media and cinnamon bread.

Combinations of different levels of potassium sorbate with cloves showed enhanced or possibly synergistic inhibitory effect on the growth of molds, indicating the possibility of using spices and commercial antifungal agents together in small amount to obtain antifungal activity (Azzouz and Bullerman 1982).

In most instances, herbs and spices are not effective antifungal agents when used in amounts normally added to foods. However, when used in combination with other preservative systems, they can be valuable contributors to an antifungal system consisting of interacting physical and chemical preservatives (Naidiu 2000).

Microgard is grade A skim milk that has been fermented by Propionibacterium shermanii and then pasteurized (Hoover 2000). The product prolongs the shelf life of cottage cheese by inhibiting psychotropic spoilage bacteria (Lyon et al. 1993). The product is also antagonistic toward some yeast and molds. Microgard consists of proionic acid, diacetyl, acetic acid, and lactic acid (Al-Zoreky 1991).

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