Organic acids, vitamins, nonvolatile and volatile flavor organic molecules (e.g., vanillin and 2-heptanone) are important compounds in food production and technology. They serve as food ingredients or as precursors for food ingredients. The major organic acids produced and used in the largest volumes function primarily as food acidulants. The means for organic acid and production methods rely on bacteria and fungi. If these ingredients are used as a food ingredient, they must have a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. Although the use of Penicillium was the primary source for many organic acids, in recent years Aspergillus niger has become the preferred organism and riboflavin oversynthesizing strains of Pichia guilliermondii the preferred source.
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