The AMF interact with functionally diverse bacteria such as diazotrophs, biological control agents, and other common rhizosphere inhabitants (Nemec 1994) that often result in significant alterations to plant growth, yield, and nutrition. Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria may have detrimental (Filion et al. 1999; Shalaby and Hanna 1998; 2001) or beneficial effects (Edwards et al. 1998; Gryndler and Hrselova 1998; Li et al. 1997; Ravnskov and Jakobsen 1999), or have no effect at all on the plant pathogenic bacterium (Otto and Winkler 1995).
Glomus mosseae prevented the infection of soybean plants by P. syringae (Shalaby and Hanna 1998), by suppressing the population density of the pathogen in soybean rhizosphere. Li et al. (1997) also found that G. macrocarpum reduced the infection caused by P. lacrymans in eggplant and cucumber, although no positive growth or yield effect was noted, indicating tolerance to the pathogen as a possible mode of action. Inoculation of mulberry with G. fasciculatum or G. mosseae in combination with 60-90 kg of P per hectare per year reduced the incidence of bacterial blight caused by P. syringae pv. mori (Sharma 1995). Inoculation of grapevines with AMF reduced the number of fluorescent pseudomonads on the rhizoplane thereby reducing the incidence of grapevine replant disease (Waschkies et al. 1994). Similarly, a reduction in the colonization of apple seedling rootlets by actinomycetes causing replant disease was reported, while a proportionate increase in root colonization by AMF was noted (Otto and Winkler 1995).
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