There are numerous gene sequences that have been examined in the systematics and phylogeny of plant pathogenic fungi. These include genes for the production of actin, tubulin, elongation factors, cytochromes, proteases, and many others [e.g., Glass and Donaldson (1995); Mehmann et al. (1994); Schoch et al. (2001)]. These genes are generally highly conserved between distant organisms; but can contain short introns that can be very variable in insertion position and number [see Edelmann and Staben (1994)]. This variation in introns can be useful as a molecular marker among closely related organisms and this has been investigated for a number of plant associated fungi including Fusarium, Ascochyta, and Phoma (see later).
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