The reestablishment of mycorrhizal fungi following disturbance has been extensively studied (Allen et al. 1999). Factors that are most influential to the recovery of mycorrhizae include the dispersal of plant and fungal propagules, the physicochemical soil environment, and the survival of fungal residuals. Plant and fungal propagules typically disperse independently of one another and then must encounter each other in a suitable microsite favorable to their survival. Plant and fungal propagules arriving at that microsite must also be viable and germinable (Cooke and Whipps 1993). Soil fertility, especially artificially high levels of available nitrogen (N) and P, could inhibit formation of mycorrhizae and slow the recovery of fungal propagules densities in soil. Therefore, survival of infective residual fungal propagules would greatly enhance mycorrhizal reestablishment (Allen and MacMahon 1985; Allen et al. 1992).
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