The direct use of lignocellulosic residues as ruminant animal feed, or as a component of such feeds, represents one of its oldest and most widespread applications and, as such, it plays an important role in the ruminant diet. The lignocellulose complex in straw and other plant residues is degraded very slowly by ruminants, because of the physical and chemical barrier imposed by lignin polymers, preventing free access of hydrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases to their substrates. Normally, the rate of decay of plant debris is proportional to its lignin content. Delignification of straw by white rot fungi seems to be the most promising way of improving its digestibility (Kamra and Zadrazil 1986; Streeter et al. 1982; Zadrazil and Reinger 1988). The role of fungi in agricultural waste conversion by different fungi species has been recently reviewed (Cohen and Hadar 2001).
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